The Infamous Moon Men Libel
The Infamous Moon Men Libel
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REFORMED EGYPTIAN - AN HEBREW LITERARY PARALLEL
REFORMED EGYPTIAN --- ER, HEBREW!
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PROFESSOR HAROLD J BERRY SPLURGES NONSENSE
IS "DR" JAMES WHITE'S DOCTORATE BOGUS?
FRED PHELPS' DEPRAVITY!
MORMONS AND MOON MEN
PAUL & BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD - WHO ARE 'THEY'?
PAUL AND GENEALOGY
ROT SPEAKS WITH FORKED ONGUE AND THREATENS FORMER DIRECTOR
FROM ANTI-MORMON TO MORMON - MY JOURNEY!
A DIVINE COMEDY
UTAH MISSIONS INC. BATTLES AMONG ITSELF
WORST OF THE ANTI-MORMON WEB #1
ED DECKER LIES - 1
ED DECKER LIES - 2
ED DECKER LIES - 3
ED DECKER LIES - 4
ED DECKER LIES - 5
ED DECKER LIES - 6
ED DECKER LIES - 7
ED DECKER LIES - 8
ED DECKER LIES - 9
ED DECKER LIES - 10
THE BIBLE CALLS THEM "FOOLS"
EGG ON FACES
REACH OUT TRUST [ROT] USES INNUENDO AS A WEAPON
ROT'S FORKED TONGUE
SATANIC INFLUENCE ADMITTED IN ROT JOURNAL
WHAT REACH OUT TRUST DARE NOT REVEAL
REACH OUT TRUST - THE POISONED CHALICE
REACH OUT TRUST EMBRACES DUNGEONS & DRAGONS
THE DEVIL LIES!
IMAGES OF HATE -CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 10
CHAPTER 11
CHAPTER 12
CHAPTER 13
CHAPTER 14
CHAPTER 15
CHAPTER 16
CHAPTER 17
CHAPTER 18
CHAPTER 19
CHAPTER 20
CHAPTER 21
CHAPTER 22
CHAPTER 23
CHAPTER 24
CHAPTER 25
CHAPTER 26
CHAPTER 27
CHAPTER 28
CHAPTER 29
CHAPTER 30
CHAPTER 31
CHAPTER 32
APPENDIX 'A'
APPENDIX 'B'
APPENDIX 'C'
APPENDIX 'D'
BIBLIOGRAPHY
FOOTNOTES & THE END
MISSING BOOKS OF THE HOLY BIBLE
BIBLE - INERRANT? INFALLIBLE?
CARM.& THE HOLY BIBLE
CARM. THE BIBLE IS NOT THEIR FINAL AUTHORITY
'GOOD WORKS' IN BIBLICAL CHRISTIANITY
WHAT THINK YE OF CHRIST?
IMPOSSIBLE TEXTS
CHRISTOLOGY ACCORDING TO EUSEBIUS
THE MORMON JESUS
WAS JESUS MARRIED?
MORMONS DO NOT SAY ALL NON-LDS CHRISTIANS ARE CORRUPT
MORMONS AND OTHER CHRISTIANS
A PASTOR ASKS A FAIR QUESTION.
CARM 101 - A DISAPPOINTMENT!
MCELVEEN'S DELUSION
SHAFOVALOFF FLUNKS THE 2 NEPHI 25:23 TEST
CARM.& ATONEMENT & SALVATION
CARM ~ MAKES IT UP!
CARM AND THE DEVIL
CARM ~ DOCTRINE OF GOD
CARM ON THE INCARNATION
CARM & THEOSIS
THE HULSES: LYIN' FER JESUS!
ROCKY HULSE
THE TRUTH ABOUT MORMONISM
JOSEPH SMITH
JOSEPH SMITH BY THOSE THAT KNEW HIM
TRUTH IN LOVE TO MORMONS . COM
DON'T SAY YOU LOVE ME IF IT ISN'T TRUE!
PLURAL MARRIAGE COMMANDED BY GOD
PLURAL MARRIAGE IN THE EARLY AND MEDIAEVAL AND LATER CGHRISTIAN CHURCHES
PLURAL MARRIAGE BROUGHT BACK BY EVANGELICALS
LORI MCGREGOR TALKS TWADDLE
CONCERNED CHRISTIANS INC,
JESUS TELLS CHRISTIANS TO FORSAKE THEIR SINS
A STINGING COMPLAINT AGAINST CONCERNED CHRISTIANS
R.O.T.
RENDELL'S DISHONEST CLAIMS
DOUG HARRIS BETRAYER & PROMISE BREAKER
L.O.U.T.
ROT'S SNEAKY FANATICS
ROT TALKS ROT
ROT'S FORKED TONGUE & DOUBLE MINDEDNESS
ROT'S RITUAL FABRICATIOJNJ
UNIVERSALISM TAUGHT - DR HANSON'S THOUGHTS
MINOR IRRITATIONS & PETTY NIGGLES
BOGUS 'DR' JAY DEE NELSON
GB HANCOCK
BOGUS 'DR' WALTER R MARTIN
BOGUS 'DOCTOR' WILLIE DYE
BOGUS 'DR' FALES
FALES' BOGUS DEFENDER
BOGUS RESPONSE TO BOGUS "DR" FALES
BRINKERHOFF'S EGREGIOUS ERROR
BRINKERHOFF'S TREACHERY - 1
BRINKERHOFF'S TREACHERY - 2
IS ANTI-MORMONISM CHRISTIAN ?
DANGEROUS FUNDAMENTALISM
"THE GOD-MAKERS"
GODMAKERS AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS - AN EDITORIAL
ERYL DAVIES
IS GOD IMMATERIAL?
THE VISIBLE GOD
EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE IN ANCIENT PALESTINE
EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE ON HEBREW THOUGHT AND LITERATURE
SEPARATING THE WHEAT FROM THE CHAFF
BEECHER ON MORMONS AND THE BIBLE
SALVATION & BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD
JESUS PREACHED IN HELL TO SAVE SOULS
THE JOHANNINE COMMA
EZEKIEL'S STICKS
BOOK OF MORMON
EVIDENCES OF THE BOOK OF MORMON
TEMPLES
JOSEPH SMITH'S OWN STORY
ELDER OAKS AT HARVARD LAW SCHOOL
SOME CHRISTIANS TELL LIES FOR CASH
MISCELLANY
YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED
THE WALL OF TRUTH & THE WALL OF SHAME
THE PERSECUTION CULTUS
INSANITY AWARDS
DAN CORNER CORNERED & PITCHFORKED!
ISAIAH 29 & THE BOOK OF MORMON
BOM CHANGES
AM I AN ANTI-MORMON?
WHY I AM A MORMON
COMPACT DISCS
THE INSANITY OF ANTI-MORMONISM
A FALSE DICHOTOMY - MORMONISM OR CHRISTIANITY - WHY MUST I CHOOSE WHEN I CAN BE BOTH AT THE SAME TIME?
A MORMON ANSWERS
DEIFICATION - THEOSIS CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE
SALVATION FOR THE DEAD - A BIBLE TEACHING
THE CHRIST OF MORMONISM IS THE CHRIST OF THE HOLY BIBLE
THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM
ON THE HOLY TRINITY
BIBLE TEACHINGS THAT DO NOT SUPPORT THE TRINITY - 01
AN EXAMPLE OF ANTI-MORMON FOOLISHNESS
A CASE STUDY ~ ANTI-MORMON ATTITUDES
JP HOLDING'S BOOK, "THE MORMON DEFENDERS"
ARE YOU PREPARED FOR HIM?
THE STANDARD OF TRUTH
BLACK MUSEUM OF ANTI-MORMONISM
THE SALAMANDER LETTER
DANITES - THE MYTH
I HAD A DREAM - A CAUTIONARY TALE
CARELESS TALK - DR MICHAEL L BROWN
LINKS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Popular mages of
The Man in the Moon  

  

Joseph Smith Sr and Joseph Smith Jr
Did NOT say The Moon Is Inhabited
Alhough Many Others Did!
  
  
 
Well - Is the Moon Inhabited?
  
By Ránall Ó'Breaghdha & Sources
[most of which are acknowledged]

  

Let me divulge right from the start that
I do not believe the moon is inhabited
When as a child I was introduced to
‘the man in the moon,’
  
Not did I believe that
‘the cow jumped over the moon'

  

Ránall Ó'Breaghdha

  
  
  Anti-Mormons are addicted to the idea that the Prophet Joseph Smith Junior and his father, Joseph Smith Senior said there were men on the moon.

  

STATUS: FALSE

  

  

  

  The source of their information is a two-page report in 'The Young Woman's Journal' of 1892 by Oliver B Huntington  who claimed that Joseph Smith Senior gave him his patriarchal blessing when he was  ten years old and had promised him in that blessing that he would preach the gospel to the inhabitants of the moon. Huntington's recollection was made more than fifty years after the alleged blessing. I write 'alleged' because investigation determines that Joseph Smith Senior did not give Oliver B Huntington his patriarchal blessing, but he received it at the hands of his own father, Brother Huntington.

According to a copy of the blessing given and recorded in Blessing Book volume 9, pp. 294-295, it was one blessing of many given that same day, and the words of the blessing were not taken down in shorthand. Orson Pratt took 'sketchy notes' and later met with recipients and from their reminiscences of what had been pronounced upon their heads he reconstructed the record as best he could. An examination of the blessing shows it to be more vague than Oliver Huntington remembered it in later years when he wrote his article for 'The Young Women's Journal'. Huntington wrote"

  

As far back as 1857 I know that he [Joseph Smith who was murdered in 1844] said that the moon was inhabited with men and women the same as this earth, and that they live to a greater age than we do--that they live generally to an age near a 1,000 years. He described the men as nearly six feet in height, and dressing uniformly in something near the Quaker style. [Young Woman's Journal, vol. 3, p. 263. Cited in Stephen W. Gibson, One-Minute Answers to Anti-Mormon Questions, pp.79-80]

 
   Thus, once and forever we dispose of the cavil
that Joseph Smith said the moon was inhabited.

  

   What is less easily disposed of are men of science and learning that believed the moon was inhabited with beings similar as ourselves.

Whether Joseph Smith was aware of these learned fellows we do not know because nowhere in his writings or in the writings of those closest to him is there any mention that he believed that the lunar orb was home to humanoids nor that he spoke of them. 

  The only person to mention that he did is Oliver B Huntington, and he was mistaken as to which person actually laid their hands on his young head and gave him his blessing, forgetting that it was his father.  

   No one by the name of Smith pronounced the blessing on the ten year old's head and none of Joseph Smith's family is on record saying there were men on the moon.

   

If little Oliver had been on more intimate terms with his father he would have known who believed the moon was inhabited and who promised him he would serve a mission on the moon. 

  
  Yes, it is true that many others, some contemporaries of the Prophet, some before him and some after him believed the moon was inhabited .

  Then again, shall we disquality the Apostlic calloing and divcine mission of John who said he saw an angel standing in the sun?   Should we treat him as Joseph Smith was treated? If not, why not?  

  

And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God; --Revelation 19:17

  

   During the course of human history, people have believed things that today seem bizarre, even crazy, but when people believe something is accurate, however improbable it is, that belief serves as evidence despite evidence that it is not so. The question whether the moon is inhabited has occupied people for centuries and countless words have been spent for and against the view that it is or that it is not. 

  
   Robert Hooke, in the seventeenth century, thought that he could construct a telescope with which we might discern the inhabitants of the moon life-size-seeing them as plainly as we see the inhabitants of the earth. But, alas! The sanguine mathematician died in his sleep, and his dream has not yet come true.
  
   Since Hooke's day gigantic instruments have been fitted up, furnished with all the modern improvements which could be supplied through the genius or generosity of such astronomers as Joseph Fraunhofer and Sir William Herschel, the third Earl of Rosse and the fourth Duke of Northumberland. But all of these worthy men left something to be done by their successors. Consequently, not long since, our scientists set to work to increase their artificial eyesight.
  
The Rev. Mr. Webb tells us that,

"the first 'Moon Committee' of the British Association recommended a [telescopic] power of 1,000."

But he discourages us if we anticipate large returns; for he adds:

  
"Few indeed are the instruments or the nights that will bear it; but when employed, what will be the result? Since increase of magnifying is equivalent to decrease of distance, we shall see the moon as large (though not as distinct) as if it were 240 miles off, and any one can judge what could be made of the grandest building upon earth at that distance." 
  
If therefore we are to see the settlement of the matter in the speculum of a telescope, it may be some time before we have done with what Guillemin calls,

"the interesting, almost insoluble question, of the existence of living and organized beings on the surface of the satellite of our little earth." [Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes, by the Rev. T. W. Webb, M.A., F.R.A.S. London, 1873, p. 58] 

  
Harley reminds us that things that are not seen may yet exist. 

Four hundred years ago all Europe believed that to sail in search of a western continent was to wish "to see what is not to be seen"; but a certain Christopher Columbus went out persuaded of things not seen as yet, and having embarked in faith he landed in sight. The lesson must not be lost upon us.

  

Because we cannot now make out either habitations or habitants on the moon, it does not necessarily follow that the night will never come when, through some mightier medium than any ever yet constructed or conceived, we shall descry, beside mountains and valleys, also peopled plains and populous cities animating the fair features of this beautiful orb. One valuable auxiliary of the telescope, destined to play an important part in lunar discovery, must not be overlooked.

  

Mr. Norman Lockyer says,

  

"With reference to the moon, if we wish to map her correctly, it is now no longer necessary to depend on ordinary eye observations alone; it is perfectly clear that because we cannot now make out either habitations or habitants on the moon, it does not necessarily follow that the night will never come when, through some mightier medium than any ever yet constructed or conceived, we shall descry, beside mountains and valleys, also peopled plains and populous cities animating the fair features of this beautiful orb. One valuable auxiliary of the telescope, destined to play an important part in lunar discovery, must not be overlooked. Mr. Norman Lockyer says, "With reference to the moon, if we wish to map her correctly, it is now no longer necessary to depend on ordinary eye observations alone ; it is perfectly clear that by means of an image of the moon, taken by photography, we are able to fix many points on the lunar surface."

With telescopic and photographic lenses in skilled hands, and a wealth of inventive genius in fertile brains, we can afford to wait a long while before we close the debate with a final negative.

  
In the meantime, eyes and glasses giving us no satisfaction, we turn to scientific induction. Speculation is a kind of mental mirror, that beforenow has anticipated or supplemented the visions of sense. Not being practical astronomers ourselves, we have to follow the counsel of that unknown authority who bids us believe the expert. But expertness being the fruit of experience, we may be puzzled to tell who have attained that rank. We will inquire, however, with due docility, of the oracles of scientific research. It is agreed on all sides that to render the moon habitable by beings at all akin with our own kind, there must be within or upon that body an atmosphere, water, changing seasons, and the alternations of day and night. [Moon Lore, Timothy Harley]

  

 La Place writes:

"The lunar atmosphere, if any such exists, is of an extreme rarity, greater even than that which can be produced on the surface of the earth by the best constructed air-pumps. It may be inferred from this that no terrestrial animal could live or respire at the surface of the moon, and that if the moon be inhabited, it must be by animals of another species." 428

This opinion, as Sir David Brewster points out, is not that the moon has no atmosphere, but that if it have any it is extremely attenuated. Mr. Russell Hind's opinion is similar with respect to water. He says:

"Earlier selenographists considered the dull, grayish spots to be water, and termed them the lunar seas, bays, and lakes. They are so called to the present day, though we have strong evidence to show that if water exist at all on the moon, it must be in very small quantity."

Mr. Grant tells us that

"the question whether the moon be surrounded by an atmosphere has been much discussed by astronomers. Various phenomena are capable of indicating such an atmosphere, but, generally speaking, they are found to be unfavourable to its existence, or at all events they lead to the conclusion that it must be very inconsiderable." m Humboldt thinks that Schroeter's assumptions of a lunar atmosphere and lunar twilight are refuted, and adds: "If, then, the moon is without any gaseous envelope, the entire absence of any diffused light must cause the heavenly bodies, as seen from thence, to appear projected against a sky almost black in the day-time. No undulation of air can there convey sound, song, or speech. The moon, to our imagination, which loves to soar into regions inaccessible to full research, is a desert where silence reigns unbroken." 431

Dr. Lardner considers it proven,

"that there does not exist upon the moon an atmosphere capable of reflecting light in any sensible degree," and also believes that " the same physical tests which show the non-existence of an atmosphere of air upon the moon are equally conclusive against an atmosphere of vapour." 432

Mr. Breen is more emphatic. He writes:

"In the want of water and air, the question as to whether this body is inhabited is no longer equivocal. Its surface resolves itself into a sterile and inhospitable waste, where the lichen which flourishes amidst the frosts and snows of Lapland would quickly wither and die, and where no animal with a drop of blood in its veins could exist." 433

The anonymous author of the Essay on the Plurality of Worlds announces that astronomers are agreed to negative our question without dissent. We shall have to manifest his mistake. His words are:

"Now this minute examination of the moon's surface being possible, and having been made by many careful and skilful astronomers, what is the conviction which has been conveyed to their minds with regard to the fact of her being the seat of vegetable or animal life? Without exception, it would seem, they have all been led to the belief that the moon is not inhabited; that she is, so far as life and organization are concerned, waste and barren, like the streams of lava or of volcanic ashes on the earth, before any vestige of vegetation has been impressed upon them; or like the sands of Africa, where no blade of grass finds root." 434

Robert Chambers says :

"It does not appear that our satellite is provided with an atmosphere of the kind found upon earth; neither is there any appearance of water upon the surface. . . . These characteristics of the moon forbid the idea that it can be at present a theatre of life like the earth, and almost seem to declare that it never can become so."436

Schoedler's opinion is concurrent with what has preceded. He writes:

"According to the most exact observations it appears that the moon has no atmosphere similar to ours, that on its surface there are no great bodies of water like our seas and oceans, so that the existence of water is doubtful. The whole physical condition of the lunar surface must, therefore, be so different from that of our earth, that beings organized as we are could not exist there."436

Another German author says :

"The observations of Fraunhofer (1823), Brewster and Gladstone (1860), Huggins and Miller, as well as Janssen, agree in establishing the complete accordance of the lunar spectrum with that of the sun. In all the various portions of the moon's disk brought under observation, no difference could be perceived in the dark lines of the spectrum, either in respect of their number or relative intensity. From this entire absence of any special absorption lines, it must be concluded that there is no atmosphere in the moon, a conclusion previously arrived at from the circumstance that during an occultation no refraction is perceived on the moon's limb when a star disappears behind the disk."

Mr. Nasmyth follows in the same strain. Holding that the moon lacks air, moisture, and temperature, he says,

"Taking all these adverse conditions into consideration, we are in every respect justified in concluding that there is no possibility of animal or vegetable life existing on the moon, and that our satellite must therefore be regarded as a barren world." 438

A French astronomer holds a like opinion, saying:

"There is nothing to show that the moon possesses an atmosphere; and if there was one, it would be perceptible during the occultations of the stars and the eclipses of the sun. It seems impossible that, in the complete absence of air, the moon can be peopled by beings organized like ourselves, nor is there any sign of vegetation or of any alteration in the state of its surface which can be attributed to a change of seasons."

On the same side Mr. Crampton writes most decisively,

"With what we do know, however, of our satellite, I think the idea of her being inhabited may be dismissed summarily; i.e. her inhabitation by intelligent beings, or an animal creation such as exist here." 440

And, finally, in one of Maunder's excellent Treasuries, we read of the moon,

"She has no atmosphere, or at least none of sufficient density to refract the rays of light as they pass through it, and hence there is no water on her surface; consequently she can have no animals like those on our planet, no vegetation, nor any change of seasons." 441

   These opinions, recorded by so many judges of approved ability and learning, have great weight; and some may regard their premisses and conclusions as irresistibly cogent and convincing. The case against inhabitation is certainly strong. But justice is impartial. A udi alteram partem.

  
   Judges of equal erudition will now speak as respondents. We go back to the seventeenth century, and begin with a work whose reasoning is really remarkable, seeing that it is nearly two hundred and fifty years since it was first published. We refer to the Discovery of a New World by John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester; in which the reverend philosopher aims to prove the following propositions :—

" 1. That the strangeness of this opinion (that the moon may be a world) is no sufficient reason why it should be rejected; because other certain truths have been formerly esteemed as ridiculous, and great absurdities entertained by common consent.

2. That a plurality of worlds does not contradict any principle of reason or faith.

  
3. That the heavens do not consist of any such pure matter which can privilege them from the like change and corruption, as these inferior bodies are liable unto.
  
4. That the moon is a solid, compacted, opacous body.

5. That the moon hath not any light of her own.

6. That there is a world in the moon, hath been the direct opinion of many ancient, with some modern mathematicians; and may probably be deduced from the tenets of others.

[7 & 8 missing from source]

9. That there are high mountains, deep valleys, and spacious plains in the body of the moon.

10. That there is an atmosphcera, or an orb of gross vaporous air, immediately encompassing the body of the moon.

[11 & 12 absent]

13. That 'tis probable there may be inhabitants in this other world; but of what kind they are, is uncertain."442

  

We go on to 1686, and listen to the French philosopher, Fontenelle, in his Conversations with the Marchioness.

"'Well, madam,’ said I, 'you will not be surprised when you hear that the moon is an earth too, and that she is inhabited as ours is.'

'I confess,' said she, ' I have often heard talk of the world in the moon, but I always looked upon it as visionary and mere fancy.' '

And it may be so still,' said I. 'I am in this case as people in a civil war, where the uncertainty of what may happen makes them hold intelligence with the opposite party; for though I verily believe the moon is inhabited, I live civilly with those who do not believe it; and I am still ready to embrace the prevailing opinion. But till the unbelievers have a more considerable advantage, I am for the people in the moon.'" 443

Whatever may be thought of his philosophy, no one could quarrel with the Secretary of the Academy on the score of his politeness or his prudence. A more recent and more reliable authority appears in Sir David Brewster. He tells us that

"MM. Madler and Beer, who have studied the moon's surface more diligently than any of their predecessors or contemporaries, have arrived at the conclusion that she has an atmosphere."

Sir David himself maintains that

"Every planet and satellite in thesolar system must have an atmosphere."

Bonnycastle, whilom professor of mathematics in the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, writes:

"Astronomers were formerly of opinion that the moon had no atmosphere, on account of her never being obscured by clouds or vapours; and because the fixed stars, at the time of an occultation, disappear behind her instantaneously, without any gradual diminution of their light. But if we consider the effects of her days and nights, which are near thirty times as long as with us, it may be readily conceived that the phenomena of vapours and meteors must be very different. And besides, the vaporous or obscure part of our atmosphere is only about the one thousand nine hundred and eightieth part of the earth's diameter, as is evident from observing the clouds, which are seldom above three or four miles high; and therefore, as the moon's apparent diameter is only about thirty-one minutes and a half, or one thousand eight hundred and ninety seconds, the obscure part of her atmosphere, supposing it to resemble our own, when viewed from the earth, must subtend an angle of less than one second; which is so small a space, that observations must be extremely accurate to determine whether thesupposed obscuration takes place or not."445

Dr. Brinkley, at one time the Astronomer-Royal of Ireland, writes:

"Many astronomers formerly denied the existence of an atmosphere at the moon; principally from observing no variation of appearance on the surface, like what would take place, did clouds exist as with us; and also, from observing no change in the light of the fixed stars on the approach of the dark edge of the moon. The circumstance of there being no clouds, proves either that there is no atmosphere similar to that of our earth, or that there are no waters on its surface to be converted into vapour; and that of the lustre of the stars not being changed, proves that there can be no dense atmosphere. But astronomers now seem agreed that an atmosphere does surround the moon, although of small density when compared with that of our earth. M. Schroeter has observed a small twilight in the moon, such as would arise from an atmosphere capable of reflecting the rays at the height of about one mile." 446

Dr. Brinkley is inaccurate in saying that astronomers are agreed as to the lunar atmosphere. Like students in every other department of inquiry, spiritual as well as physical, they fail at present to see "eye to eye"; which is not surprising, seeing that the eye is so restricted, and the object so remote.

  
Dr. Dick, whose productions have done much to popularize the study of the heavens, and to promote its reverent pursuit, says :

"On the whole it appears most probable that the moon is surrounded with a fluid which serves the purpose of an atmosphere ; although this atmosphere, as to its nature, composition, and refractive power, may be very different from the atmosphere which surrounds the earth. It forms no proof that the moon, or any of the planets, is destitute of an atmosphere, because its constitution, its density, and its power of refracting the rays of light are different from ours. An atmosphere may surround a planetary body, and yet its parts be so fine and transparent that the rays of light, from a star or any other body, may pass through it without being in the least obscured, or changing their direction. In our reasonings on this subject, we too frequently proceed on the false principle, that everything connected with other worlds must bear a resemblance to those on the earth."447

Mr. Neison, who has written one of the latest contributions to the science of selenography, says,

"Of the present non-existence of masses of water upon the surface of the moon, there remains no doubt, though no evidence of its entire absence from the lunar crust can be adduced; and similarly, many well-established facts in reference to the moon afford ample proof of the non-existence of a lunar atmosphere, having a density equal to, or even much less than, that of the earth; but of the absence of an atmosphere, whose mass should enable it to play an important part in the moulding of the surface of the moon, and comparable almost to that of the terrestrial atmosphere, in their respective ratios to the masses of their planets, little, if any, trustworthy evidence exists."

On another page of the same work, the author affirms

"....  that later inquiries have shown that the moon may possess an atmosphere that must be regarded as fully capable of sustaining various forms of vegetation of even an advanced type; and, moreover, it does not appear how it can justly be questioned that the lunar surface in favourable positions may yet retain a sufficiency of moisture to support vegetation of many kinds; whilst in a very considerable portion of the entire surface of the moon, the temperature would not vary sufficiently to materially affect the existence of vegetable life."448

Some of these writers may appear to be travelling rather too fast or too far, and their assumptions may wear more of the aspect of plausibility than of probability. But on their atmospheric and aqueous hypothesis, vegetation in abundance is confessedly a legitimate consequence. If a recent writer has liberty to condense into a sentence the conclusion from the negative premiss in the argument by saying,

"As there is but a little appearance of water or air upon the moon, the conclusion has been inferred that there exists no vegetable or animal life on that globe," 449

Other writers, holding opposite views of the moon's physical condition, may be allowed to expatiate on the luxuriant life which an atmosphere with water and temperature would undoubtedly produce. Mr. Proctor's tone is temperate, and his language that of one who is conscious with Hippocrates that "art is long and life is short." He says, in one of his contributions to lunar science,

"It may safely be asserted that the opportunities presented during the life of any single astronomer for a trustworthy investigation of any portion of the moon's surface, under like conditions, are few and far between, and the whole time so employed must be brief, even though the astronomer devote many more years than usual to observational research."450

This prepares us to find in another of the same author's works the following suggestive sentence:

"With regard to the present habitability of the moon, it may be remarked that we are not justified in asserting positively that no life exists upon her surface. Life has been found under conditions so strange, we have been so often mistaken in assuming that here certainly, or there, no living creatures can possibly exist, that it would be rash indeed to dogmatise respecting the state of the moon in this respect." 451

Narrien, one of the historians of the science, may be heard, though his contribution might be cast into either scale. He writes:

"The absence of those variations of light and shade which would be produced by clouds floating above her surface, and the irregularities of the ground, visible at the bottom and on the sides of her cavities, have given reason to believe that no atmosphere surrounds her, and that she is destitute of rivers and seas. Such are the opinions generally entertained concerning the moon."

However, M. Schroeter, a German astronomer, ventures to assert that our satelliteis the abode of living and intellectual beings; he has perceived some indications of an atmosphere which, however, he admits,

"cannot exceed two miles in height, and certain elevations which appear to him to be works of art rather than of nature. He considers that a uniformity of temperature must be produced on her surface by her slow rotation on her axis, by the insensible change from day to night, and the attenuated state of her atmosphere, which is never disturbed by storms; and that light vapours, rising from her valleys, fall in the manner of a gentle and refreshing dew to fertilize her fields." 452

Dr. H. W. M. Olbers is fully persuaded that,

" ... the moon is inhabited by rational creatures, and that its surface is more or less covered with a vegetation not very dissimilar to that of our own earth."

Dr. Gruithuisen, of Munich, maintains that he has descried through his large achromatic telescope

"great artificial works in the moon erected by the lunarians," which he considers to be " a system of fortifications thrown up by the selenitic engineers."

We should have scant hope of deciding the dispute by the dicta of the ancients, were these far more copious than we find them to be. Yet reverence for antiquity may justify our quoting one of the classic fathers. Plutarch says,

"The Pythagoreans affirme, that the moone appeereth terrestriall, for that she is inhabited round about, like as the earth wherein we are, and peopled as it were with the greatest living creatures, and the fairest plants."

Again,

"And of all this that hath been said (my friend Theon) there is nothing that doth proove and show directly, this habitation of men in the moon to be impossible." 453  

  

Here we close the argument based on induction, and sum up the evidence in our possession. On the one hand, several scientific men, whose names we need not repeat, having surveyed the moon, deny it an atmosphere, water, and other conditions of life. Consequently, they disbelieve in its inhabitation, solely because they consider the fact undemonstrable; none of them being so unscientific as to believe it to be absolutely impossible. On the other hand, we have the valuable views of Madler and Beer, whose lunar labours are unsurpassed, and whose map of the moon is a marvel and model of advanced selenography. They do not suppose the conditions on our satellite to be exactly what they are on this globe. In their own words, the moon is " no copy of the earth, much less a colony ofthe same." They merely believe her to be environed with air, and thus habitable.

And when we recall our own Sir David Brewster, Professor Bonnycastle, Dr. Brinkley, Dr. Dick, Mr. Neison, and Mr. Proctor; and reckon with them the continental astronomers, Dr. Gruithuisen, Dr. Olbers, and Schroeter, all of whom attempted to fix the idea of planetary inhabitation on the popular mind, we must acknowledge that they, with their opponents, have a strong claim on our attention. The only verdict we are able just now to render, after hearing these conflicting testimonies, is the Scotch one, Not proven. We but append the legal indorsement ignoramus, we do not know. The subject must remain subjudice; but what we know not now, we hope to know hereafter.

  
Having interrogated sense and science, with the solution of our enigma anything but complete, we resort last of all to the argument from analogy. If this can illumine the obscurity, it will all be on the positive side of the inquiry. At present the question resembles a half-moon: analogy may show that the affirmative is waxing towards a full-orbed conviction. We open with Huyghens, a Dutch astronomer of note, who, while he thinks it certain

"that the moon has no air or atmosphere surrounding it as we have," and "cannot imagine how any plants or animals whose whole nourishment comes from fluid bodies, can thrive in a dry, waterless, parched soil," yet asks, "What, then, shall this great ball be made for; nothing but to give us a little weak light in the night time, or to raise our tides in the sea? Shall not we plant some people there that may have the pleasure of seeing our earth turn upon its axis, presenting them sometimes with a prospect of Europe and Africa, and then of Asia and America; sometimes half and sometimes full?"454

  

Ray was

"persuaded that this luminary doth serve many ends and uses, especially to maintain the creatures which in all likelihood breed and inhabit there."455 

  
Swedenborg's ipse dixit ought to convince the most incredulous; for he speaks

"from what has been heard and seen." Thus he says: "That there are inhabitants in the moon is well known to spirits and angels, and in like manner that there are inhabitants in the moons or satellites which revolve about Jupiter and Saturn. They who have not seen and discoursed with spirits coming from those moons still entertain no doubt but there are men inhabiting them, because they are earths alike with the planets, and wherever an earth is, there are men inhabitants; for man is the end for which every earth was created, and nothing was made by the great Creator without an end."456

If any are still sceptical, Sir William Herschel, an -intellectual light of no mean magnitude, may reach them. He writes:

"While man walks upon the ground, the birds fly in the air, and fishes swim in water, we can certainly not object to the conveniences afforded by the moon, if those that are to inhabit its regions are fitted to their conditions as well as we on this globe are to ours. An absolute or total sameness seems rather to denote imperfections, such as nature never exposes to our view; and, on this account, I believe the analogies that have been mentioned fully sufficient to establish the high probability of the moon's being inhabited like the earth."457

  
The voice of Dr. Dwight, the American theologian, will not be out of harmony here. In discoursing of the starry heavens, he says of the planets:

"Of these inferior worlds, the moon is one; and to us, far the most interesting. How many important purposes which are known does this beautiful attendant of our earth continually accomplish! How many more, in all probability, which are hitherto unknown, and which hereafter may be extensively disclosed to more enlightened, virtuous, and happy generations of men! At the same time, it is most rationally concluded that intelligent beings in great multitudes inhabit her lucid regions, being far better and happier than ourselves." 458

  
Whewell's Bridgewater Treatise will furnish us a fitting quotation.

"The earth, the globular body thus covered with life, is not the only globe in the universe. There are, circling about our own sun, six others, so far as we can judge, perfectly analogous in their nature : besides our moon and other bodies analogous to it. No one can resist the temptation to conjecture, that these globes, some of them much larger than our own, are not dead and barren:—that they are, like ours, occupied with organization, life, intelligence." 459

  
In a most eloquent passage, Dr. Chalmers, who will always be heard with admiration, exclaims:

"Who shall assign a limit to the discoveries of future ages? Who shall prescribe to science her boundaries, or restrain the active and insatiable curiosity of man within the circle of his present acquirements? We may guess with plausibility what we cannot anticipate with confidence. The day may yet be coming when our instruments of observation shall be inconceivably more powerful. They may ascertain still more decisive points of resemblance. They may resolve the same question by the evidence of sense which is now so abundantly convincing by the evidence of analogy. They may lay open to us the unquestionable vestiges of art, and industry, and intelligence. We may see summer throwing its green mantle over those mighty tracts, and we may see them left naked and colourless after the flush of vegetation has disappeared. In the progress of years or of centuries, we may trace the hand of cultivation spreading a new aspect over some portion of a planetary surface. Perhaps some large city, the metropolis of a mighty empire, may expand into a visible spot by the powers of some future telescope. Perhaps the glass of some observer, in a distant age, may enable him to construct the map of another world, and to lay down the surface of it in all its minute and topical varieties. But there is no end of conjecture; and to the men of other times we leave the full assurance of what we can assert with the highest probability, that yon planetary orbs are so many worlds, that they teem with life, and that the mighty Being who presides in high authority over this scene of grandeur and astonishment has there planted the worshippers of His glory." 460

  
How fine is this outburst of the great Scotch orator! He spoke as one inspired with prophetic foreknowledge; for in less than twenty years after this utterance, Beer and Madler published their splendid Mappe Selenographica, or map of the moon ; and photography offered its aid to the fuller delineation of our silvery satellite. Who can tell what the last fifteen years of this eventful century may develop in the same direction? Verily these intuitions of reason seem often favoured with an apocalypse of coming disclosures; and, if we may venture to adopt with slight alteration a sentence of Shelley, we will say:

"It is impossible to read the compositions of the most celebrated writers of the present day without being startled with the electric life which burns within their words. They measure the circumference and sound the depths of nature with a comprehensive and all-penetrating spirit, and they are themselves perhaps the most sincerely astonished at its manifestations; for it is less their spirit than the spirit of the age." The poets of science, in their analogies, are "the hierophants of an unapprehended inspiration; the mirrors of the gigantic shadows which futurity casts upon the present."461

  

Equally noble with the language of Chalmers is a paragraph which we have extracted from a work by that scholarly writer, Isaac Taylor. He says:

"There are two facts, each of which is significant in relation to our present subject, and of which the first has long been understood, while the latter (only of late ascertained) is every day receiving new illustrations; namely, that our planet is, in no sense, of primary importance in the general system, or entitled, by its magnitude, or its position, or its constitution, to be considered as exerting any peculiar influence over others, or as the object of more regard than any others. This knowledge of our real place and value in the universe is a very important consequence of our modern astronomy, and should not be lost sight of in any of our speculations. But then it is also now ascertained that the great laws of our own planet, and of the solar system to which it belongs, prevail in all other and the most remote systems, so as to make the visible universe, in the strictest sense, ONE SYSTEM—indicating one origin and showing the presence of one Controlling Power. Thus the law of gravitation, with all the conditions it implies, and the laws of light, are demonstrated to be in operation in regions incalculably remote; and just so far as the physical constitution of the other planets of our system can be either traced, or reasonably conjectured, it appears that, amid great diversities of constitution, the same great principles prevail in all; and therefore our further conjecture concerning the existence of sentient and rational life in other worlds is borne out by every sort of analogy, abstract and physical; and this same rule of analogy impels us to suppose that rational and moral agents, in whatever world found, and whatever diversity of form may distinguish them, would be such that we should soon feel at home in their society, and able to confer with them, to communicate knowledge to them, and to receive knowledge from them. Neither truth nor virtue is local; nor can there be wisdom and goodness in one planet, which is not wisdom and goodness in every other."

  
The writer of the Plurality of Worlds, a little work distinct from the essay already quoted, vigorously vindicates

"the deeply cherished belief of some philosophers, and of many Christians, that our world, in its present state, contains the mere embryo of intelligent, moral, and religious happiness; that the progress of man in his present state is but the initiation of an interminable career of glory; and that his most widely extended associations are a preparation for as interminably an intercourse with the whole family of an intelligent universe." 463 

  
Dr. Arnott may add a final word, a last link in this evidential chain of analogy. He writes:

"To think, as our remote forefathers did, that the wondrous array of the many planets visible from this earth serve no purpose but to adorn its nocturnal sky, would now appear absurd indeed; but whether they are inhabited by beings at all resembling the men of this earth, we have not the means of knowing. All the analogies favour the opinion that they are the abodes of life and its satisfactions. On this earth there is no place so hot or so cold, so illumined or so dark, so dry or so wet, but that it has creatures constituted to enjoy life there."464

  
Here our long list of learned authorities shall terminate. We have strung together a large number of citations, and have ourselves furnished only the string. Indeed, what more have amateurs that they can do? For, as Pope puts it,—
  
Who shall decide, when doctors disagree, 
And soundest casuists doubt, like you and me?
  
Besides, astronomy is no child's play, nor are its abstruse problems to be mastered by superficial meddlers. As Narrien reminds us,

"Its intricacy," "in the higher departments, is such as to render the processes unintelligible to all but the few distinguished persons who, by nature and profound application to the subject, are qualified for such researches." 465

But if professionals must be summoned as witnesses, ordinary men may sit as jurors. This function we have wished to fufil; and we avow ourselves considerably perplexed, though not in despair. We hoped that after a somewhat exhaustive examination, we might be able to state the result with an emphasis of conviction. This we find impossible; but we can affirm on which side the evidence' appears to preponderate, and whither, we rest assured, further light will lead our willing feet. The conclusion, therefore, of the whole matter is: we cannot see any living creatures on the moon, however long we strain our eyes. No instrument has yet been constructed that will reveal the slightest vestige of inhabitation. Consequently, the actual evidence of sense is all against us, and we resign it without demur. This point, being settled, is dismissed.

  

Next, we reconsider the results of scientific study, and are strongly inclined to think the weight of testimony favours the existence of a thin atmosphere, at least some water, and a measure of light and shade in succession. These conditions must enable vegetables and animals to exist upon its surface, though their constitution is in all probability not analogous with that of those which are found upon our earth. But to deny the being of inhabitants of some kind, even in the absence of these conditions, we submit would be unphilosophical, seeing that the Power which adapted terrestrial life to terrestrial environments could also adapt lunar life to the environments in the moon. 
  
We are seeking no shelter in the miraculous, nor do we run from a dilemma to the refuges of religion. Apart from our theological belief in the potency of the Creator and Controller of all worlds, we simply regard it as illogical and inconclusive to argue that because organization, life, and intelligence obtain within one sphere under one order of circumstances, therefore the same order obtains in every other sphere throughout the system to which that one belongs. The unity of nature is as clear to us as the unity of God; but unity is not uniformity. We view the whole creation as we view this world; the entire empire as we view this single province,
  
Where order in variety we see, 
And where, though all things differ, all agree.
  
And, finally, as analogy is unreservedly on the side of the occupation of every domain in creation, by some creatures who have the dominion, we cannot admit the probability that the earth is the only tenement with tenants: we must be confirmed in our judgment that the sun and the planets, with their moons, ours of course included, are neither blank nor barren, but abodes of variously organized beings, fitted to fulfil the chief end of all noble existence: the enjoyment of life, the effluence of love, the good of all around and the glory of God above.
  
This article, that the moon is inhabited, may therefore form a clause of our scientific creed; not to be held at any hazard, as a matter of life or death, or a test of communion, but to be maintained subject to corrections such as future elucidation may require. We believe that we are justified by science, reason, and analogy; and confidently look to be further justified by verification. We accept many things as matters of faith, which we have not fully ascertained to be matters of fact; but "faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the proving of things not seen."

By double entry the books of science are kept, by reasoning and demonstration: when future auditors shall examine the accounts of the moon's inhabitation, we are persuaded that the result of our reckoning will be found to be correct.

  
If any would charge us with a wish to be wise above what is written, we merely reply: There are unwritten revelations which are nevertheless true.
  
SOURCES:

The Heavens, by Amédée   Guillemin. London, 1876, p. 144

Moon Lore, by Timothy Harley, 1885
  
  Besides, we are not sure that at least an intimation of other races than those of the earth is not already on record. Not to prove any position, but tocheck obstructive criticism, we refer to the divine who is said to have witnessed in magnificent apocalypse some closing scenes of the human drama. If he also heard in sublime oratorio a prelude of this widely extended glory, our vision may not be a "baseless fabric." After the quartettes of earth, and the interludes of angels, came the grand finale, when every creature which is in heaven, as well as on the earth, was heard ascribing "Blessing and honour and glory and power to Him who sitteth upon the throne."

Assuredly, our conception of a choir worthy to render that chorus is not of an elect handful of "saints," or contracted souls, embraced within any Calvinistic covenant, but of an innumerable multitude of ennobled, purified, and expanded beings, convoked from every satellite and planet, every sun and star, and overflowing with gratitude and love to that universal Father of lights, with whom is no parallax, nor descension, and who kindled every spark of life and beauty that in their individual and combined lustre He might reflect and repeat His own ineffable blessedness.

  
APPENDIX.

  

Literature of the Lunar Man. Vide p. 8.
1. The Man in the Moone. Telling Strange Fortunes. London, 1609.
2. "The Man in the Moone, discovering a world of Knavery under the Sunne; both in the Parliament, the Councel of State, the Army, the City,and the Country!' Dated, "Die Lunae, From Nov. 14 to Wednesday Novemb. 21 1649." Periodical Publications, London. British Museum. Another Edition, "Printed for Charles Tyns, at the Three Cups on London Bridge, 1657."
3. "Θέάνάρχια, or The Government of the World in the Moon. A comical history written by Cyrano Bergerac, and done into English by Tho. St. Serf. London 1659." The same, Englished by A. Lovell, A.M., London, 1687.
4. " The Man in the Moon, or Travels into the Lunar Regions, by W. Thomson, London, 1783." In this lucubration the Man in the Moon shows the Man of the People (Charles Fox), many eminent contemporaries, by means of a magical glass.
5. "The Man in the Moon, consisting of Essays and Critiques." London, 1804. Of no value. After shining feebly like a rushlight for about two months, it went out in smoke.
6. The Man in the Moon. London, 1820. A Political Squib.
7. The Loyal Man in the Moon, 182c, is a Political Satire, with thirteen cuts.
8. The Man in the Moon, London, 1827?). A Poem. N.B. The word poem has many meanings. 259
9. The Man in the Moon. Edinburgh, 1832. A small sheet, sold for political purposes, at the high price of a penny. The Lunar Man pledges himself to "do as I like, and not to care one straw for the opinion of any person on earth."
10. The Man in the Moon. London, 1847. This is a comical serial, edited by Albert Smith and Angus B. Reach; and is rich, racy, and now rare.
11. The Moon's Histories. By a Lady. London, 1848. The Minor of Pythagoras.  Vide p. 147.  
In laying thus the blame upon the moone, 
Thou imitat'st subtill Pythagoras,  
Who, what he would the people should beleeve, 
The same he wrote with blood upon a glasse, 
And turn'd it opposite 'gainst the new moone;  
Whose beames reflecting on it with full force, 
Shew'd all those lynes, to them that stood behinde,  
Most playnly writ in circle of the moone; 
And then he said, Not I, but the new moone 
Fair Cynthia, perswades you this and that.
  
Summer to Sol, in A Pleasant Comedie, called Summer's Last Will and Testament. Written by Thomas Nash. London, 1600.
  
The East Coast of Greenland. Vide p. 171.

  

"When an eclipse of the moon takes place, they attribute it to the moon's going into their houses, and peeping into every nook and corner, in search of skins and eatables, and on such occasions accordingly, they conceal all they can, and make as much noise as possible, in order tofrighten away their unbidden guest."—Narrative of an Expedition to the East Coast of Greenland: Capt. W. A. Graah, of the Danish Roy. Navy. London, 1837, p. 124.
  
Lord Iddeshigh on the Moon. Vide p. 189.  Speaking at a political meeting in Aberdeen, on the 22nd of September, 1885, the Earl of Iddesleigh approved the superannuated notion of lunar influence, and likened the leading opponents of his party to the old and new moon.

"What signs of bad weather are there which sometimes you notice when storms are coming on? It always seems to me that the worst sign of bad weather is when you see what is called the new moon with the old moon in its arms. I have no doubt that many of you Aberdeen men have read the fine old ballad of Sir Patrick Spens, who was drowned some twenty or thirty miles off the coast of Aberdeen. In that ballad he was cautioned not to go to sea, because his faithful and weatherwise attendant had noticed the new moon with the old moon in its lap. I think myself that that is a very dangerous sign, and when I see Mr. Chamberlain, the new moon, with Mr. Gladstone, the old one, in his arms, I think it is time to look out for squally weather."—The Standard,London, Sept. 23rd, 1885.

  
The Scottish ballad of Sir Patrick Spens, which is given in the collections of Thomas Percy, Sir Walter Scott, William Motherwell, and others, issupposed by Scott to refer to a voyage that may really have taken place for the purpose of bringing back the Maid of Norway, Margaret, daughter of Alexander III., to her own kingdom of Scotland. Finlay regards it as of more modern date. Chambers suspects Lady Wardlaw of the authorship. While William Allingham counsels his readers to cease troubling themselves with the historical connection of this and all other ballads, and toenjoy rather than investigate. Coleridge calls Sir Patrick Spens a "grand old ballad."  Lunar Influence on Dreams. Vide p. 214.
  
Arnason says that in Iceland

"there are great differences between a dream dreamt in a crescent moon, and one dreamt when the moon is waning. Dreams that are dreamt before full moon are but a short while in coming true; those dreamt later take a longer time for their fulfilment." —Icelandic Legends, Introductory Essay, p. Ixxxvii.

  
NOTES

  

1. The Martyrs of Science, by Sir David Brewster, K.H., D.C.L. London, 1867, p. 21.
2. The Marvels of the Heavens, by Camile Flammarion. London, 1870, p. 238.
3. The Jest Book. Arranged by Mark Lemon. London, 1864, p. 310.
4. Timon, a Play. Edited by the Rev. A. Dyce. London (Shakespeare Society), 1842, Act iv. Scene iii.
5. The Man in the Moon drinks Claret, as it was lately sung at the Court in Holy-well. Bagford      Ballads, Folio Collection in the British Museum, vol. ii. No. 119.
6. Conceits, Clinches, Flashes, and Whimsies. Edited by J. O. Halliwell, F.R.S. London, 1860, p. 41.
7. The Man in the Moon, by C. Sloman. London, 1848, Music by E. J. Loder.
8. Ancient Songs and Ballads, by Joseph Ritson. London, 1877, p. 58.
9. On the Religions of India. Hibbert Lectures for 1878. London, p. 132.
10. An Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John Jamieson, D.D. Paisley, 1880, iii.       299.
11. Sir Thomas Browne's Works. Edited by Simon Wilkin, F.L.S., London, 1835, iii. 157.
12. Popular Antiquities of Great Britain. Hazlitt's Edition. London, 1870, ii. 275.
13. Asgard and the Gods. Adapted from the work of Dr. Wagner, by M. W. Macdowall; and edited by W. S. Anson.  London, 1884, p. 30. 263
14. An Introduction to the Science of Comparative Mythology and Folk Lore, by the Rev. Sir George      W. Cox,       Bart., M.A. London, 1881, p. 12. 15. Plutarch's Morals. Translated by P. Holland.       London, 1603, p. 1160.
16. Myths and Marvels of Astronomy, by R. A. Proctor. London, 1878, p. 245. See also, As Pretty as       Seven and other German Tales, by Ludwig Bechstein. London, p. 1ll.
17. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, by S. Baring-Gould, M.A. London, 1877, p. 193.
18. Northern Mythology, by Benjamin Thorpe. London, 1851, iii. 57.
19. Notes and Queries. First Series, 1852, vol. vi. p. 232. The entire text of this poem is given in       Bunsen's God in History. London, 1868, ii. 495. 
20. Thorpe's Mythology, i. 6.
21. Ibid, 143.
22. Curious Myths, pp. 201-203.
23. Teutonic Mythology, by Jacob Grimm. Translated by J. S. Stallybrass. London, 1883, ii. 717.
24. De Natura Rerum. MS. Harl. No. 3737.
25. MS. Harl. No. 2253, 81.
26. The Archozological fournal for March, 1848, pp. 66, 67.
27. See Tyrwhitt's Chaucer. London, 1843, p. 448.
28. Dekker"s Dramatic Works. Reprinted, London, 1873, 11. 121
29. Popular Rhymes of Scotland. Robert Chambers. London and Edinburgh, 1870, p. 185.
30. Popular Rhymes and Nursery Tales, by J. O. Halliwell. London, 1849, p. 22&
31. Curious Myths, p. 197.
32. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 719-20.
33. The Vision of Dante Alighieri. Translated by the Rev. H. F. Cary, A.M. London.
34. The Folk-Lore of China, by N. B. Dennys, Ph.D. London and Hong Kong, 1876, p. 117.
35. Himalayan foumals, by Joseph D. Hooker, M.D., R.N., F.R.S. London, 1855, ii. 278.
36. Primitive Culture, by Edward B. Tylor. London, 1871, i. 320.
37. A Brief Account of Bushman Folk-Lore, by WHJ Bleek, Ph.D. Cape Town, 1875 p. 9.
38. The History of Greenland, from the German of David Cranz. London, 1820, i. 212.
39. An Arctic Boat fourney in the Autumn ^1854, by Isaac J. Hayes, M.D. Boston, U.S., 1883, p. 254.
40. The Natural Genesis, by Gerald Massey. London, 1883, i. 115.
41. The Church Missionary Intelligencer for November, 1858, p. 249.
42. Ibid., for April, 1865, p. 116.
43. See Notes and Queries. First Series, vol. xi. p. 493.
44. Researches into the Early History of Mankind, by Edward B. Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. London,       1878, p. 378.
45. Ibid, p. 336.
46. Notes and Queries: on China and Japan. Hong Kong, August, 1869, p. 123.
47. Selected Essays on Language, Mythology, and Religion. London, 1881, i. 613.
48. Vico, by Robert Flint. Edinburgh, 1884, p. 210.
49. The Dictionary Historical and Critical of Mr. Peter Bayle. London, 1734, v. 576.
50. See Lunar World, by the Rev. J. Crampton, M.A. Edinburgh, 1863, p. 83.
51. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, by the Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D. London, p. 592.
52. The Man in the Moon. By an Undergraduate of Worcester College. Oxford, 1839, Part '. p- 3
53. MS. in the British Museum Library. Additional MSS. No. 11,812.
54. Lucian's Works. Translated from the Greek by Ferrand Spence. London, 1684, ii. 182.
55. The Table Book. By William Hone. London, 1838, ii. 252.
56. Adventures of Baron Munchausen. London, 1809, p. 44.
57. Flammarion's Marvels of the Heavens, p. 241.
58. Records of the Past. Edited by S. Birch, LL.D., D.C.L. London, iv. 121.
59. The Philosophic, 1603. Holland's Transl. p. 1184.
60. Primitive Culture, ii. 64. 
61. A Journey to the Moon, by the Author of Worlds Displayed. London, p. 6.
62. Dennys' Folk-Lore of China, p. 101.
63. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 720.
64. Flammarion's Marvels of the Heavens, p. 253.
65. The Philosophic, p. 338.
66. The Woman in the Moone, by John Lyllie. London, 1597.
67. Dr. Rae, On the Esquimaux. Transactions of the Ethnological Society, vol. iv., p. 147.
68. Vide also A Description of Greenland, by Hans Egede. Second Edition. London, 1818, p. 206.
69. Amazonian Tortoise Myths, by Ch. Fred. Hartt, A.M. Rio de Janeiro, 1875, p. 40.
70. Algic Researches, by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. New York, 1839, ii. 54.
71. Information respecting the History, Sr'c., of the Indian Tribes, by H. R. Schoolcraft. Philadelphia,       v. 417.
72. Nineteen Years in Polynesia, by the Rev. George Turner. London, 1861, p. 247.
73. An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands in the South Pacific Ocean, by William Mariner.       Arranged by John  Martin, M.D. London, 1818, ii. 127. 
74. Myths and Songs from the South Pacific, by the Rev. W. W. Gill, B.A. London, 1876, p. 45.
75. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 716.
76. Selected Essays, vol, i. note to p. 611.
77. The Sacred and Historical Books of Ceylon, edited by Edward Upham. London, 1833, iii. 309.
78. Teutonic Mythology, ii. 716.
79. Illustrations of Shakespeare. London, 1807, i. 17.
80. Dictionnaire Infernal, par J. Collin de Plancy. Paris, 1863, p. 592.
81. The Chinese Reader's Manual, by W. F. Mayers. Shanghai, 1874, p. 219.
82. The Chinese Readers Manual, p. 95.
83. Reynard (he Fox in South Africa; or, Hottentot Fables and Tales by W. H. J. Bleek. London, 1864,       p. 72.
84. A Brief Account of Bushman Folk-Lore, by Dr. Bleek. Cape Town, 1875, p. 10.
85. Outlines of Physiology, Human and Comparative, by John Marshall, F.R.S. London, 1867, ii. 625.
86. Lectures on the Native Religions of Mexico and Peru, by Albert ReVille, D.D. London, 1884, p. 8.
87. History of the Conquest of Mexico, by William H. Prescott.  London, 1854, p. 50.
88. The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, by Hubert Howe Bancroft. New York,       1875, iii. 62.
89. Zoological Mythology; or, the Legends of Animals, by Angelo de Gubernatis. London, 1872, ii. 80. [absent] 
90. Ibid., ii. 76.
91. Report on the Indian Tribes Inhabiting the Country in the Vicinity of the 49th Parallel of North       Latitude, by  Capt. Wilson. Trans, of Ethnolog. Society of London, 1866. New Series, iv. 304. 
92. The Races of Mankind, by Robert Brown, M.A., Ph.D. London, 1873-76, i. 148.
93. Dennys' Folk-Lore of China, p. 117.
94. The Middle Kingdom, by S. Wells Williams, LL.D. New York, 1883, ii. 74.
95. The Disowned, by the Right Hon. Lord Lytton, chap. lxii.
96. Fiji and the Fijians, by Thomas Williams. London, 1858, i. 205.
97. Primitive Culture, i. 321.
98. On the Aborigines of Southern Australia, by W. E. Stan bridge, of Wombat, Victoria. Transactions       of Ethnolog. Society of London, 1861, p. 301.
99. A Discovery of a New World, by John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester. London, 1684, p. 77.
100. A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, by Capt. James Cook, F.R.S., and Capt. James King, LL.D.,         F.R.S. London, 1784, ii. 167.
101. Polynesian Researches during a Residence of nearly Eight Years in the Society and Sandwich         Islands, by William Ellis. London, 1833, iii. 171.
102. Prehistoric Times, by Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P., D.C.L. London, 1878, p. 440.
103. Primitive Culture, i. 318.
104. See Kalisch on Genesis. London, 1858, p. 70.
105. Sermons, by the Rev. W. Morley Punshon, LL.D. Second Series. London, 1884, p. 376.
106. Outlines of the History of Religion, by C. P. Tiele. Trans. by J. E. Carpenter. London, 1877, p. 8.
107. The Myths of the New World, by Daniel G. Brinton, A.M., M.D. New York, 1868, p. 131.
108. The Primitive Inhabitants of Scandinavia. By Sven Nilsson (Lubbock's edit.). London, 1868, p.          206.
109. Lectures on the Science of Language. London, 1880, i. 6.
110. Teutonic Mythology, iii. 704.
111. The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. London, 1878, iii. 39.
112. Ibid, iii. 165.
113. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations. London, 1882, note to p. 372.
114. Russian Folk-Lore, by W. R. S. Ralston, M.A. London, 1873, p. 176.
115. Tylor's Primitive Culture, i. 260.
116. A System of Biblical Psychology, by Franz Delitzsch, D.D., translated by the Rev. R. E. Wallis,       Ph.D. Edinburgh, 1875, p. "4.
117. The Book of Isaiah liv. 4-6, and lxii. 4.
118. English Grammar, Historical and Analytical, by Joseph Gostwick. London, 1878, pp. 67-72.
119. Hibbert Lectures for 1878, p. 190.
120. Bayle's Dictionary, i. 113.
121. Vide Tylor's Anthropology. London, 1881, p. 149.
122. Language and Languages, by the Rev. Frederic W. Farrar, D.D., F.R.S. London, 1878, p. 181.
123. Ibid., p. 182. Coleridge also was in error on this question. See his Table Talk, under date May 7th,         1830.
124. Hebrew and Christian Records, by the Rev. Dr. Giles. London, 1877, i. 366.
125. Biblical Psychology, p. 79.
126. Antitheism, by R. H. Sandys, M.A. London, 1883, p. 32.
127. The Origin and Development of Religious Belief. London, 1878, i. 187.
128. The Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson. London, 1882, i. 274.
129. Jesus Christ: His Times, Life, and Work, by E. de Pressense". London, 1866, p. 38.
130. Sketches of the History of Man, by the Hon. Henry Home of Kames. Edinburgh, 1813, iii. 364.
131. Ancient Faiths Embodied in Ancient Names, by Thomas Inman. London, 1872, ii. 325.
132. Mythology among the Hebrews, by Ignaz Goldziher, Ph.D. London, 1877, p. 76.
133. Primitive Culture, ii. 271.
134. Nineveh and its Remains, by Austen Henry Layard, M.P. London, ii. 446.
135. Inman's Ancient Faiths, i. 93.
136. The Unicorn: a Mythological Investigation, Robert Brown, FSA London, 1881, p. 34. 
137. The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, by George Rawlinson, M.A. London, 1871, i. 56.
138. Ibid., vol. i. p. 123.
139. Ibid., vol. i. note to p. 124.
140. Brown's Unicorn, p. 34.
141. Mythology among the Hebrews, p. 158.
142. Ibid., 159.
143. Ibid., 160.
144. Jewish History and Politics, by Sir Edward Strachey, Bart. London, 1874, p. 256.
145. Phoenicia, by John Kenrick, M.A. London, 1855, p. 301.
146. Dictionary of the Bible, edited by William Smith, LL.D. Art. ASHTORETH.
147. Dictionary of the Scottish Language, iii. 299.
148. On Isaiah. London, 1824, ii. 374.
149. The Antiquities of Israel, by Heinrich Ewald (trans, by Solly). London, 1876, p. 341.
150. The Bampton Lectures for 1876, William Alexander, DD DCL London, 1878, p. 378.
151. Rivers of Life, showing the Evolution of Faiths, by Major-General JGR Forlong, London, 1883, ii. 62.
152. Outlines of the History of Religion, by C. P. Tiele, p. 63.
153. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 194.
154. The Philosophy of History, by Frederick von Schlegel, translated by JB Robertson, London, 1846, p. 325.
155. El-Koran, translated from the Arabic by JM Rodwell, M.A. London, 1876, p. 199.
156. Tylo^s Primitive Culture, ii. 274.
157. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. London, 1862, p. 76.
158. The Zend-Avesta, translated by James Darmesteter. Oxford, 1883, Part ii., p. 90.
159. The Philosophy of History, by GWF Hegel, trans lated by J Sibree, M.A. London, 1861, p. 186.
160. The Highlands of Central India, by Captain J. Forsyth. London, 1871, p. 146.
160. Travels from St. Petersburg in Russia to Diverse Parts of Asia, by John Bell of Antermony. Glasgow, 1763,  i. 230.
161. The Early Races of Scotland, by Forbes Leslie. Edinburgh, 1866, i. 138.
162. Karnes' History of Man, iii. 299.
163. The Origin of Civilization and the Primitive Condition of Man, by Sir John Lubbock, Bart. MP FRS  DCL LLD London, 1882, p. 315. 
164. History of Man, iii. 366.
165. The Religions of China, by James Legge. London, 1880, p. 12.
166. Ibid., pp. 44-46.
167. Religion in China, by Joseph Edkins, D.D. London, 1878, p. 60.
168. A Translation of the Confucian Yih King, by the Rev. Canon McClatchie, M.A Shanghai, 1876, p. 386.
169. Ibid., p. 388.
170. Ibid., p. 449.
171. The Religions of China, p. 170.
172. Religion in China, p. 105.
173 Handbook for the Student of Chinese Buddhism, Rev EJ Eitel, London. 1870, p. 107.
174. Hulsean Lectures for 1870, p. 203.
175. Hibbert Lectures on Indian Buddhism, by T. W. Rhys Davids. London, 1881, p. 231.
176. A View of China for Philological Purposes, Rev. R. Morrison. Macao, 1817, p. 107.
177. Dennys' Folk-Lore of China, p. 28. 
178. Travels in Tartary, Thibet, and China during the years 1844-46, by M. Hue. Translated by W Hazlitt. London, i. 61.
179. Social Life of the Chinese, by Rev. Justus Doolittle. New York, 1867, ii. 65.
180. China: Its State and Prospects, by W. H. Medhurst. London, 1838, p. 217.
181. Ibid., p. 188.
182. Researches into the Physical History of Mankind, by James Cowles Prichard, M.D., FRS  London, 1844, iv. 496-7.
183. Tytor's Anthropology, p. 21.
184. The Historical Library of Diodorus the Sicilian, Made English by G. Booth. London, 1700, p. 3.
185. History of Ancient Egypt, by George Rawlinson, M.A. London, 1881, i. 369.
186. Records of the Past, Edited by S. Birch, LL.D., D.C.L., etc. London, vi. iii.
187. Hibbert Lectures for 1879, p. 116.
188. Ibid., p. 155.
189. Ancient Egypt, i. 373.
190. Records of the Past, iv. 53.
191. Egypt's Place in Universal History, by Christian CJ Bunsen, DPh DCL Trans CH Cottrell, MA London, 1848, i. 395. 
192. Hibbert Lectures, p. 237.
193. On the Relations between Pasht, the Moon, and the Cat, in Egypt. Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 1878, vol. vi. 316.
194. Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, in the years 1768-73, by James Bruce, FRS  Edinburgh, 1813, vi. 343
195. Ibid., iv. 36.
196. A Voyage to Congo, by Father Jerom Merolla da Sorrento. Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels. London, 1814, vol. xvi. 273.
197. Journal of the Anthropological Institute, May, 1884. 
198. Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa, Mungo Park, London, 1779, vol. i. 271.
199. Ibid., i. 322.
200. Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, by David Livingstone, LL.D., DCL etc. London, 1857, p. 235
201. The Present State of the Cape of Good Hope, by Peter Kolben, A.M. London, 1731, i. 96.
202. The Poetical Works of Lord Byron. London, 1876 {Don Juan, Canto iii.), p. 636.
203. The Iliad of Homer. Translated by J. G. Cordery. London, 1871, ii. 183.
204. A History of Greece, by George Grote, F.R.S. London, 1872, i. 317.
205. Vide Pausan., L. x. c. 32, p. 880. Edit. Kuhnii, fol. Lips, 1696.
206. History of Greece, i. 317.
207. The Iliad of Homer, by Edward Earl of Derby. London, 1867, i. 190.
208. See Roman Antiquities, by Alexander Adam, LL.D. London, 1825, pp. 251-60.
209. Carmen Sceculare, 35.
210. Metam., lib. xi. 657.
211. The Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated, by William Warburton, D.D. London, 1837, i. 316.
212. Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, iii. 299.
213. Teutonic Mythology, ii. 704.
214. Chaldaan Magic: Its Origin and Development, by Francois Lenormant. London, p. 249.
215. Flammarion's Astronomical Myths, p. 35.
216. Leslie's Early Races of Scotland, i. 113.
217. Ibid., i. 134.
218. Remaines of Gentilisme and fudaisme, by John Aubrey, 1686-7. Edited by James Britten, FLS London, 1881, p. 83.
219. Britannia, by William Camden, trans Edmund Gibson, DD London, 1772, ii. 380.
220. A General History of Ireland from the Earliest Accounts, by Mr. O'Halloran. London, 1778, i. 47.
221. Ibid., i. 113.
222. Ibid., i. 221.
223. The Towers & Temples of Ancient Ireland, Marcus Keane, MRIA Dublin, 1867, p. 59.
224. The Keys of the Creeds. London, 1875, p. 148
225. A. S., in Notes and Queries for Nov. 19, 1881, p. 407.
226. History of the Missions of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America, by George Henry Loskiel. London, 1794, Part i. p. 40. 
227. Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, George Catlin. London, 1876, ii. 242. 
228. Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, by Gilbert Malcolm Sproat. London, 1868, p. 206.
229. Brown's Races of Mankind, p. 142.
230. Lubbock's Origin of Civilization, p. 315.
231. See Mexico To-day, by Thomas Unett Brocklehurst. London, 1883, p. 175.
232. Bancroft's Races of the Pacific, i. 587.
233. Ibid., iii. 112.
234. Ibid., iii. 187.
235. Hibbert Lectures for 1884, p. 45.
236. American Antiquities and Researches into the Origin and History of the Red Race, by Alexander W. Bradford.  New York, 1843, p. 353. 
237. Travels in Brazil in the Years 18 r 7-20, by Dr. Joh. Bapt. von Spix and Dr. C. F. Phil, von Martius. London, 1824, ii. 243.
238. An Account of the Abipones, an Equestrian people of Paraguay, from the Latin of Martin Dobrizhoffer. London, 1822, ii. 65.
239. The Royal Commentaries of Peru, by the Inca Garcilasso de la Vega. Translated by Sir Paul Rycaut, Knt. London, 1688, folio, p. 455.
240. Narratives of the Rites and Laws of the Yncas. Translated from the Spanish MS. of Christoval de Molina, by Clements R. Markham, C.B., F.R.S. London, 1873, P.37.
241. History of the Conquest of Peru, by William H. Prescott. London, 1878, p. 47.
242. Jottings during the Cruise of H.M.S. Curacoa among the South Sea Islands in 1865, Julius L Brenchley,  M.A., F.R.G.S. London, 1873, P. 32. 
243. Polynesian Mythology, by Sir George Grey, late Governor in Chief of New Zealand. London, 1855, Pref.  xiii.
244. Kenrick's Phamicia, p. 303.
245. Workes of John Baptista Van Helmont. London, 1644, p. 142.
246. Goldziher's Hebrew Mythology, Note to p. 206.
247. Ibid., p. 206.
248. Dr. Smith's Bible Dictionary, Article Meni, by William A. Wright, M.A., ii. 323.
249. Goldziher's Hebrew Mythology, p. 160.
250. Gubernatis' Zoological Mythology, i. 18.
251. Ibid., ii. 375.
252. Mayers' Chinese Reader's Manual, p. 288.
253. Japanese Fairy World. Stories from the Wonder Lore of Japan, by William Elliot Griffis Schenectady, N.V., 1880, p. 299.
254. Brown's Unicorn, p. 69.
255. Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, iii. 375.
256. Teutonic Mythology, ii. Note to p. 719.
257. Brinton's Myths of the New World, p. 130.
258. Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, iii. 485.
259. Myths of the New World, p. 133. 060. Ibid., p. 134.
261. Origin of Civilization, p. 315.
262. Myths of the New World, pp. 135-7.
263. Ibid., p. 131.
264. Tytor's Primitive Culture, i. 318.
265. Chambers's Etymological Dictionary (Findlater).
266. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 865.
267. Ecclesiastical Polity. London, 1617, p. 191.
268. The Natural History of Infidelity & Superstition, JE Riddle, MA Oxford, 1852, p. 155.
269. The Anatomy of Melancholy. London, 1836, p. 669.
270. The Descent of Man, by Charles Darwin, M.A., F.R.S., etc. London, 1877, p. 121.
271. Essays. Of Superstition.
272. Lectures on the Philosophy of the Human Mind. Edinburgh, 1828, p. 673.
273. Voltaire, by John Morley. London, 1878, p. 156. See also Parton's Life of Voltaire.
274. Gubernatis' Zoological Mythology, i. 56.
275. Vide Inman's Ancient Faiths, ii. 260, 326.
276. Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History. London, 1847, i. 116.
277. History of Brazil, by Robert Southey. London, 1810, p. 63S
278. The Dictionary, Historical and Critical. London, 1734, iv. 672.
279. Primitive Culture, i. 262.
280. Leslie's Early Races of Scotland, ii. 496.
281. History of Brazil, i. 193.
282. Icelandic Legends. Collected by Jon Arnason (Powell and Magnusson). London, 1866, p. 663.
283. On the Truths contained in Popular Superstitions, by Herbert Mayo, M.D. Edinburgh and London, 1851, p. 135
284. A Literal Translation of Aristophanes; The Clouds, by a First-Class Man of Balliol College. Oxford, 1883, p. 31.
285. See Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folk Lore, by Walter H. Kelly. London, 1863, p. 226.
286. Teutonic Mythology, ii. 706.
287. Astronomical Myths, p. 331.
288. Medea : a Tragedie. Written in Latin by Lucius Anneus Seneca. London, 1648, p. 105.
289. The Childhood of the World, by Edward Clodd, F.R.A.S. London, 1875, P. 65.
290. The Chinese Empire, by M. Hue. London, 1855, ii. 376.
291. The Connection of the Physical Sciences. London, 1877, p. 104.
292. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 707.
293. Appendix on the Astronomy of the Ancient Chinese, by the Rev. John Chalmers, A.M. Legge's Chinese Classics.  Vol. iii. Part i. Hong-Kong, 1861, p. 101. 
294. The Middle Kingdom, i. 818.
295. Ibid., ii. 73.
296. Social Life of the Chinese, by the Rev. Justus Doolittle, of Fuhchau. New York, 1867, i. 308.
297. Chinese Sketches, by Herbert A. Giles. London, 1876, p. 99.
298. Gems of Chinese Literature, by Herbert A. Giles. Shanghai, 1884, p. 102.
299. An Account of Cochin China. Written in Italian by the R. E. Christopher Borri, a Milanese, of the Society of  Jesus. Pinkerton's Travels, ix. 816. 
300. A Voyage to and from the Island of Borneo in the East Indies, by Captain Daniel Beeckman.         London, 1878, p. 107.
301. History of the Indian Archipelago, by John Crawfurd, F.R.S. Edinburgh, 1820, i. 305.
302. Sketches of the History of Man, iii. 300.
303. Thucydides. Translated by B. Jowett, M.A. Oxford, 1881, i. 521. 
304. The Stratagems of ferusalem, by Lddowick Lloyd, Esq., One of her Majestie's Serjeants at arms.         London, 1602, p. 286.
305. Quoted in Notes and Queries, 16th of April, 1881, by William E. A. Axon.
306. Northern Antiquities, by Paul Henri Mallett. London, 1790, i. 39.
307. Teutonic Mythology, i. 245.
308. Ibid., ii. 705.
309. Advice to a Son. Oxford, 1658, p. 105.
310. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 714.
311. Schoolcraft's Indian Tribes, v. 216.
312. Brinton's Myths, p. 137.
313. Bradford's American Antiquities, p. 332.
314. Ibid., p. 333.
315. The Antiquities of Mexico, by Augustine Aglio. London, 1830, folio vi. 144.
316. Bancroft's Native Races, iii. 1ll.
317. Brinton's Myths, p. 131.
318. Polynesian Researches, i. 331.
319. Mariner's Natives of the Tonga Islands, ii. 127.
320. Discoveries in the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon. London, 1853, p. 552.
321. Tylor's Primitive Culture, ii. 272.
322. Ibid., ii. 272.
323. Description of the Western Islands of Scotland, by Martin Martin. London, 1716, p. 41.
324. The Philosophic, p. 696.
325. A Voyage to St. Kilda, the remotest of all the Hebrides, by M. Martin, Gent. Printed in the year         1698. Miscellanea Scottica. Glasgow, 1818, p. 34.
326. The Zend-Avesta. Oxford, 1883, ii. 90.
327. Five Hundred poinles of good Uusbandrie, by Thomas Tusser. London, 1580, p. 37.
328. Flammarion's Marvels of the Heavens, p. 244.
329. The Philosophic, 1603, p. 697.
330. English Folk-Lore, by the Rev. T. F. Thiselton Dyer, M.A., Oxon. London, 1880, p. 42.
331. Notes on the Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders, by William         Henderson. London, 1866, p. 86.
332. Knowledge for the Timely John Timbs, F.S.A. London, p. 227.
333. Popular Errors, Explained and Illustrated, by John Timbs, F.S.A. London, 1857, p. 131.
334. A Manual of Astrology, by Raphael. London, 1828, p. 90. 335. Brinton's Myths, p. 132.
336. Endimion: The Man in the Moone. London, 1591, Act i. Sc. 1.
337. A defensative against the poyson of supposed Prophecies, by Henry Howard, Earl of          Northampton. London, 1583.
338. Folk-Lore of China, p. 118.
339. Tusser"s Good Husbandrie, p. 13.
340. Ibid., p. 13.
341. Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties of England, p. 41.
342. David Copperfield. The "Charles Dickens" edition, p. 270.
343. See An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients, by the Rt. Hon. Sir George C. Lewis,         Bart. London, 1862, p. 312.
344. Popular Astronomy, by Simon Newcomb, LL.D. New York, 1882, p. 325.
345. Primitive Culturey. 118. 
346. Dennys's Folk-Lore of China, p. 32.
347. Folk-Lore j or, Manners and Customs of the North of England, by M.A.D. Novo-Castro-sup.         Tynan, 1850-51, p. 11.
348. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 42.
349. Ibid., p. 41.
350. Time's Telescope for 1814. London, p. 368.
351. Dennys's Folk-Lore of China, p. 118.
352. The Book of ,Days: a Miscellany of Popular Antiquities. Edited by R. Chambers. London and         Edinburgh, ii. 203.
353. The Life and Correspondence of Robert Southey. Edited by his son. London, 1850, v. 341.
354. Adam Bede, chap, xviii.
355. Scottish Ballads and Songs. Edited by James Maidment. Edinburgh, 1868, i. 41.
356. Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language. Paisley, 1880, iii. 299.
357. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 38.
358. Notes and Queries for May 16th, 1874, p. 384.
359. Ibid, for August 1st, 1874, p. 84.
360. Amazulu, by Thomas B. Jenkinson, B.A., late Canon of Maritzburg. London, 1882, p. 61.
361. Legends of Iceland. Collected by Jdn Arnason. Second series. London, 1866, p. 635. .362.         Astrology, as it is, not as it has been represented, by a Cavalry Officer. London, 1856, p. 37.
363. A Manual of Astrology, by Raphael. London, 1828, p. 89.
364. The Dignity and Advancement of Learning. London (Bohn), 1853, p. 129.
365. Works. London, 1740, iii. 187.
366. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 41.
367. Scottish Dictionary, iii. 300.
368. Tylo^s Primitive Culture, i. 117.
369. Vide Potter's Antiquities of Greece, ii. 262.
370. Recreations in Astronomy, by the Rev. Lewis Tomlinson, M.A. London, 1858, p. 251.
371. Flammarion's Marvels of the Heavens, p. 243.
372. Genesis, with a Talmudic Commentary, by Paul Isaac Hershon. London, 1883, p. 50.
373. Notes on the Miracles, p. 363. 
374. The Gospel of S. Matthew illustrated from Ancient and Modern Authors, by the Rev. James Ford,         M.A. London, 1859, p. 310.
375. See Light: Its Influence on Life and Health, by Forbes Winslow, M.D., D.C.L. London, 1867, p.         94. Also the History of Astronomy, by George Costard, M.A. London, 1767, p. 275. 
376. The Science and Practice of Medicine, by William Aitken, M.D. London, 1864, ii. 353.
377. Myths of the New World, p. 132.
378. Ibid., p. 134.
379. Ibid., p. 135.
380. The Darker Superstitions of Scotland illustrated from history and practice, by John Graham         Dalyell. Edinburgh, 1834, p. 286.
381. The Early Races of Scotland, i. 136.
382. The Statistical Account of Scotland, by Sir John Sinclair, Bart. Edinburgh, 1791, i. 47.
383. Works. London, 1740, iii. 187.
384. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 47.
385. Some West Sussex Superstitions Lingering in 1868. Collected by Charlotte Latham, at         Fittleworth. The Folk Lore RecordTor 1878, p. 45.
386. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 48.
387. Inman's Ancient Faiths, ii. 327.
388. Fairy Tales: their origin and meaning, by John Thackray Bunce. London, 1878, p. 131.
389. Martin's Western Islands of Scotland, 1716, p. 42.
390. Letters from the East, by John Came, Esq. London, 1826, p. 77
391. Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 715.
392. Timbs's Knowledge for the Time, p. 227.
393. Dissertation upon Superstitions in Natural Things, by Samuel W, Basil, Switzerland. London,         1748, p. 6.
394. Vide Grimm's Teutonic Mythology, ii. 714-716.
395. Defensative, 1583.
396. A Talmudic Miscellany. Compiled and translated by Paul Isaac Hershon. London, 1880, p. 342. 396 Cesar's Commentaries. London (Bohn), 1863, Book i. Chap. 50.
397. Popular Rhymes, p. 217.
398. The Year Book of Daily Recreation and Information, by William Hone. London, 1838, p. 254.
399. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 43.
400. Gentilisme, p. 37.
401. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 44.
402. Extraordinary Popular Delusions. London, i. 260.
403. Dyer's Folk-Lore, p. 38.
404. Henderson's Folk-Lore, p. 86.
405. Popular Romances of the West of England. Collected by Robert Hunt, F.R.S. London, 1881, p.         429.
406. West Sussex Superstitions, p. 10.
407. C. W. J. in Chambers's Book of Days, ii. 202.
408. Early Races of Scotland, i. 136.
409. Scottish Dictionary, iii. 300.
410. Forlong's Rivers of Life, ii. 63.
411. Secret Memoirs of the late Mr. Duncan Campbel. Written by Himself. London, 1732, p. 62.
412. Folk-Lore, 1851, p. 8.
413. Popular Rhymes.
414. Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary, iii. 300.
415. Familiar Illustrations of Scottish Character, by the Rev. Charles Rogers, LL.D. London, 1865, p.         172.
416. Statistical Account of Scotland, xii. 457.
417. Early Races of Scotland, ii. Note to p. 406.
418. Dalyell's Darker Superstitions of Scotland, p. 285.
419. Romeo and Juliet, Act ii. Sc. 2.
420. Light: Its Influence on Life and Health, p. 101.
421. Religion as Affected by Modern Materialism, by James Martineau, LL.D. London, 1874, pp. 7,         11.
422. The Relations between Religion and Science. Bampton Lectures for 1884, p. 245.
423. Address delivered before the British Association assembled at Belfast, by John Tyndall, F.R.S.         London, 1874, p. 61.
424. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes, by the Rev. T. W. Webb, M.A., F.R.A S. London,        1873, p. 58.
425. The Heavens, by Ame'dee Guillemin. London, 1876, p. 144. 
426. McFingal, by John Trumbull. Hartford, U.S.A., 1782; Canto i. line 69.
427. Stargazing, by J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S. London, 1878, p. 476.
428. The System of the World, by M. le Marquis de La Place. Dublin, 1830, i. 42.
429. The Solar System, by J. Russell Hind. London, 1852, p. 48.
430. History of Physical Astronomy, by Robert Grant, F.R.A.S. London, 1852, p. 230.
431. Cosmos, by Alexander von Humboldt (Sabine's Edition). London, 1852, iii. 357.
432. Handbook of Astronomy, by Dionysinus Lardner, D.C.L. London, 1853, pp. 194, 197.
433. The Planetary Worlds, by James Breen. London, 1854, p. 123. "A Shrewd Old Fellow's the Man 1n the Moon."
" From my palace of light I look down upon earth,
When the tiny stars are twinkling round me ;
Though centuries old, I am now as bright
As when at my birth Old Adam found me.
Oh ! the strange sights that I have seen,
Since earth first wore her garment of green !
King after king has been toppled down, 
And red-handed anarchy's worn the crown!
From the world that's beneath me I crave not a boon,
For a shrewd old fellow's the Man in the Moon.
And I looked on 'mid the watery strife,
When the world was deluged and all was lost
Save one blessed vessel, preserver of life,
Which rode on through safety, though tempest tost.
I have seen crime clothed in ermine and gold,
And virtue shuddering in winter's cold.
I have seen the hypocrite blandly smile,
While straightforward honesty starved the while.
Oh! the strange sights that I have seen,
Since earth first wore her garment of green!
I have gazed on the coronet decking the brow
Of the villain who, breathing affection's vow,
Hath poisoned the ear of the credulous maiden,
Then left her to pine with heart grief laden.
Oh! oh ! if this, then, be the world, say I,
I '11 keep to my home in the clear blue sky;
Still to dwell in my planet I crave as a boon,
For the earth ne'er will do for the Man in the Moon."

  

Did the Prophet Joseph Smith teach that there were  men on the moon as some Anti-Mormons claim?  If any still believe that cavil, then I have some land in the Florda Everglades, ripe for development, that they may like to buy, dirt cheap!

  

Only the Gullible need apply!

  

  

  

  

  

Who'll Smoke With the Man in The Moon?

  

  

  

The Man in the Moon

William Hogarth

"Some of the Principal Inhabitants of the Moon"

1835 Lithograph
Inhabitants of the Moon