The Transliteration of Hebrew Documents
The Transliteration of Hebrew Documents
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THE CONTINUING NEED FOR PROPHETS & APOSTLES?
ADDING & TAKING AWAY - BIBLE TALK
THE ANTI-MORMONS' FLAW
THE ANTI-MORMON PREDICAMENT
FIENDISHLY CLEVER!
CROSS-EYED STAR GAZERS
MORMONS & THE HOLY BIBLE
NON-MORMONS & THE HOLY BIBLE
2 TIMOTHY 3:16-17
READY ANSWERS 1 PETER 3:15
JOSEPH SMITH PROPHET OF GOD
THE WENTWORTH LETTER
GUEST OP-ED: WHAT'S WRONG WITH THOSE STUPID MORMONS?
UNNAMED 'WITNESSES'
MCELVEEN'S 'UNNAMED '' MORMONS'
ANTI-MORMONS' BOGUS DEGREES
ANTI-MORMON LITERATURE
INVENTING CUMORAH
ANACHRONISMS IN THE BOOK OF MORMON
ALMA 7:10 - SETTLED!
“AND IT CAME TO PASS”
REFORMED EGYPTIAN - AN HEBREW LITERARY PARALLEL
REFORMED EGYPTIAN --- ER, HEBREW!
SALVATION FOR THE DEAD:
BEECHER ON SALVATION FOR THE DEAD
A LUTHERAN BISHOP ON BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD
UNIVERSAL APOSTASY PROPHECIES IN THE HOLY BIBLE
PROPHECIES OF THE COMING APOSTASY
THE APOSTASY - INTERNAL CAUSES
THE PERSECUTED CHURCH OF CHRIST BECOMES A PERSECUTING ANTI-CHURCH
POST APOSTASY NOVELTIES
EXTERNAL CAUSES OF APOSTASY
BAPTISM BY TOTAL IMMERSION ESSENTIAL FOR SALVATION
CORRUPTION OF THE ESSENTIAL RITE OF BAPTISM
PROFESSOR HAROLD J BERRY SPLURGES NONSENSE
IS "DR" JAMES WHITE'S DOCTORATE BOGUS?
FRED PHELPS' DEPRAVITY!
MORMONS AND MOON MEN
PAUL & BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD - WHO ARE 'THEY'?
PAUL AND GENEALOGY
ROT SPEAKS WITH FORKED ONGUE AND THREATENS FORMER DIRECTOR
FROM ANTI-MORMON TO MORMON - MY JOURNEY!
A DIVINE COMEDY
UTAH MISSIONS INC. BATTLES AMONG ITSELF
WORST OF THE ANTI-MORMON WEB #1
ED DECKER LIES - 1
ED DECKER LIES - 2
ED DECKER LIES - 3
ED DECKER LIES - 4
ED DECKER LIES - 5
ED DECKER LIES - 6
ED DECKER LIES - 7
ED DECKER LIES - 8
ED DECKER LIES - 9
ED DECKER LIES - 10
THE BIBLE CALLS THEM "FOOLS"
EGG ON FACES
REACH OUT TRUST [ROT] USES INNUENDO AS A WEAPON
ROT'S FORKED TONGUE
SATANIC INFLUENCE ADMITTED IN ROT JOURNAL
WHAT REACH OUT TRUST DARE NOT REVEAL
REACH OUT TRUST - THE POISONED CHALICE
REACH OUT TRUST EMBRACES DUNGEONS & DRAGONS
THE DEVIL LIES!
IMAGES OF HATE -CHAPTER 1
CHAPTER 2
CHAPTER 3
CHAPTER 4
CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 6
CHAPTER 7
CHAPTER 8
CHAPTER 9
CHAPTER 10
CHAPTER 11
CHAPTER 12
CHAPTER 13
CHAPTER 14
CHAPTER 15
CHAPTER 16
CHAPTER 17
CHAPTER 18
CHAPTER 19
CHAPTER 20
CHAPTER 21
CHAPTER 22
CHAPTER 23
CHAPTER 24
CHAPTER 25
CHAPTER 26
CHAPTER 27
CHAPTER 28
CHAPTER 29
CHAPTER 30
CHAPTER 31
CHAPTER 32
APPENDIX 'A'
APPENDIX 'B'
APPENDIX 'C'
APPENDIX 'D'
BIBLIOGRAPHY
FOOTNOTES & THE END
MISSING BOOKS OF THE HOLY BIBLE
BIBLE - INERRANT? INFALLIBLE?
CARM.& THE HOLY BIBLE
CARM. THE BIBLE IS NOT THEIR FINAL AUTHORITY
'GOOD WORKS' IN BIBLICAL CHRISTIANITY
WHAT THINK YE OF CHRIST?
IMPOSSIBLE TEXTS
CHRISTOLOGY ACCORDING TO EUSEBIUS
THE MORMON JESUS
WAS JESUS MARRIED?
MORMONS DO NOT SAY ALL NON-LDS CHRISTIANS ARE CORRUPT
MORMONS AND OTHER CHRISTIANS
A PASTOR ASKS A FAIR QUESTION.
CARM 101 - A DISAPPOINTMENT!
MCELVEEN'S DELUSION
SHAFOVALOFF FLUNKS THE 2 NEPHI 25:23 TEST
CARM.& ATONEMENT & SALVATION
CARM ~ MAKES IT UP!
CARM AND THE DEVIL
CARM ~ DOCTRINE OF GOD
CARM ON THE INCARNATION
CARM & THEOSIS
THE HULSES: LYIN' FER JESUS!
ROCKY HULSE
THE TRUTH ABOUT MORMONISM
JOSEPH SMITH
JOSEPH SMITH BY THOSE THAT KNEW HIM
TRUTH IN LOVE TO MORMONS . COM
DON'T SAY YOU LOVE ME IF IT ISN'T TRUE!
PLURAL MARRIAGE COMMANDED BY GOD
PLURAL MARRIAGE IN THE EARLY AND MEDIAEVAL AND LATER CGHRISTIAN CHURCHES
PLURAL MARRIAGE BROUGHT BACK BY EVANGELICALS
LORI MCGREGOR TALKS TWADDLE
CONCERNED CHRISTIANS INC,
JESUS TELLS CHRISTIANS TO FORSAKE THEIR SINS
A STINGING COMPLAINT AGAINST CONCERNED CHRISTIANS
R.O.T.
RENDELL'S DISHONEST CLAIMS
DOUG HARRIS BETRAYER & PROMISE BREAKER
L.O.U.T.
ROT'S SNEAKY FANATICS
ROT TALKS ROT
ROT'S FORKED TONGUE & DOUBLE MINDEDNESS
ROT'S RITUAL FABRICATIOJNJ
UNIVERSALISM TAUGHT - DR HANSON'S THOUGHTS
MINOR IRRITATIONS & PETTY NIGGLES
BOGUS 'DR' JAY DEE NELSON
GB HANCOCK
BOGUS 'DR' WALTER R MARTIN
BOGUS 'DOCTOR' WILLIE DYE
BOGUS 'DR' FALES
FALES' BOGUS DEFENDER
BOGUS RESPONSE TO BOGUS "DR" FALES
BRINKERHOFF'S EGREGIOUS ERROR
BRINKERHOFF'S TREACHERY - 1
BRINKERHOFF'S TREACHERY - 2
IS ANTI-MORMONISM CHRISTIAN ?
DANGEROUS FUNDAMENTALISM
"THE GOD-MAKERS"
GODMAKERS AND THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS - AN EDITORIAL
ERYL DAVIES
IS GOD IMMATERIAL?
THE VISIBLE GOD
EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE IN ANCIENT PALESTINE
EGYPTIAN INFLUENCE ON HEBREW THOUGHT AND LITERATURE
SEPARATING THE WHEAT FROM THE CHAFF
BEECHER ON MORMONS AND THE BIBLE
SALVATION & BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD
JESUS PREACHED IN HELL TO SAVE SOULS
THE JOHANNINE COMMA
EZEKIEL'S STICKS
BOOK OF MORMON
EVIDENCES OF THE BOOK OF MORMON
TEMPLES
JOSEPH SMITH'S OWN STORY
ELDER OAKS AT HARVARD LAW SCHOOL
SOME CHRISTIANS TELL LIES FOR CASH
MISCELLANY
YOUR QUESTIONS ANSWERED
THE WALL OF TRUTH & THE WALL OF SHAME
THE PERSECUTION CULTUS
INSANITY AWARDS
DAN CORNER CORNERED & PITCHFORKED!
ISAIAH 29 & THE BOOK OF MORMON
BOM CHANGES
AM I AN ANTI-MORMON?
WHY I AM A MORMON
COMPACT DISCS
THE INSANITY OF ANTI-MORMONISM
A FALSE DICHOTOMY - MORMONISM OR CHRISTIANITY - WHY MUST I CHOOSE WHEN I CAN BE BOTH AT THE SAME TIME?
A MORMON ANSWERS
DEIFICATION - THEOSIS CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE
SALVATION FOR THE DEAD - A BIBLE TEACHING
THE CHRIST OF MORMONISM IS THE CHRIST OF THE HOLY BIBLE
THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM
ON THE HOLY TRINITY
BIBLE TEACHINGS THAT DO NOT SUPPORT THE TRINITY - 01
AN EXAMPLE OF ANTI-MORMON FOOLISHNESS
A CASE STUDY ~ ANTI-MORMON ATTITUDES
JP HOLDING'S BOOK, "THE MORMON DEFENDERS"
ARE YOU PREPARED FOR HIM?
THE STANDARD OF TRUTH
BLACK MUSEUM OF ANTI-MORMONISM
THE SALAMANDER LETTER
DANITES - THE MYTH
I HAD A DREAM - A CAUTIONARY TALE
CARELESS TALK - DR MICHAEL L BROWN
LINKS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Reformed Ægyptian
An Hebrew Literary Parallel Posited by Franz Xaver Wutz
'The Transcription Theory'

  

During the year I served with the British Army in Cyprus, 1 August 1954 – 1 August 1955, I kept my journal in the English "language" written in the Greek "text." I did it for no other reason than as a personal fad. It was accessible to all that could read Greek characters and understand the English language. 

I am indebted to Daniel L Edwards’ book “A Key to the Old Testament,” Collins, Glasgow, 1976, 1989 edition, also, Fount Paperbacks, London, 1989 for the information on page 150 of this eminently readable and exceedingly well researched book from which I quote directly.  

 
“From its Assyrian occupation the adjacent territory became known forever as ‘Syria.’ After the arrival of the Assyrians, the ex-Israelites (whether in exile or in their homes) began using Aramaic, not Hebrew, as their everyday language.
 explanation is that the Assyrian empire, and later its Babylonian and Persian successors, found it convenient to use this international language which might be called a sister, but never a daughter, of Hebrew. Previously it would have been the case that while the ambassador of the Assyrian emperor could speak Aramaic, as could the leading officials in the court of Jerusalem, ‘the people of the city wall’ (2 Kings 18:26) would have known only Hebrew.

But after the Assyrian conquest even Hebrew, preserved for sacred purposes, was now written in a new way, using the Aramaic square script. After the arrival of the Babylonians, the Jews took to using Babylonian names of the months, beginning the new year in the spring instead of the autumn.”   
 

 
Thus, writing Hebrew in Aramaic script introduces us to Reformed Hebrew. Those that could read only Paleo-Hebrew would, naturally, be confused by the appearance of what is referred to as Square Hebrew script, which is the adopted Aramaic character set.  All pre-Aramaic doc uments from ancient Israelites was written in a Paleo-Hebrew Character Se, including early Hebrew Scriptures.     

  

 We are thus introduced to Reformed Hebrew characters which demonstrates that changes or re-form-ations in ancient language using the character sets of other languages is far from being far-fetched.    Yet there is even more information about this subject. 

  

Whilst poring over Professor Harrison’s “Introduction To The Old Testament,” [Eerdman’s Publishing Co, Grand Rapids, MI, (1969)], I came across a paragraph on page ? discussing the LXX that attracted my attention.

“While the evidence from Qumran [FM Cross, BASOR [Bulletins of the American Schools of Oriental Research], No. 132 (1953), pp. 15ff., No. 141 (1956), pp. 9ff., 1B, XII (1957), pp. 655ff.) makes it obvious that the LXX (Septuagint) had a long and involved prehistory, it seems unlikely that underlying the LXX there was a rendering of the Hebrew into Greek letters, as Wutz proposed (see: FX Wutz, ZAW [Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft], XLIII (1925), Die Psalmen textkritisch untersucht (1925), Die Transkriptionen von der Septuaginta bis zu Hieronymous (1933), and Systematische Wege von der LXX zum Hebräischen Urtext (1937).”

“Undoubtedly there were in existence transliterations of the Hebrew text into the Greek alphabet, analogous to the Samaritan Pentateuch, as an initial step towards helping Hellenistic Jews who could not follow the Hebrew script to understand the portions that were read aloud in the synagogues. 

“While the LXX does in fact employ Greek transliterations on occasions, particularly in the case of names, it is improbable that the LXX utilized such transcriptions to any significant extent.”


Although Wutz does not suggest that the Greek characters were modified or re-formed, he does posit that a text in one language character set could be rendered in the character set of another language, as was the case of Reformed Ægyptian in the origianl plate-text of the Book of Mormon. 

These scholarly explanations show that writing Hebrew in a modified Egyptian script, that is not claimed to be a 'language' except by ill-informed critics was clearly not an alien notion in the Ancient Near East. 

  

"The Transcription Theory" (O. G. Tychsen, F. X. Wutz)

The theory that the translators used a Hebrew text transliterated into Greek characters underlies the so-called ‘Transcription Theory,’ associated in modern times with the name of Franz Xaver Wuts (1883-1928) of Eichstätt. His concern with Septuagint origins arose from his early work on Jerome’s translation of the Hebrew Onomasticon of Eusebius, involving as it did the transcription of the Hebrew Proper names. His belief that this branch of study might throw light on the original Hebrew found expression in a paper, ‘Ist der hebräische Urtext wieder erreichbar?’ delivered at Munich in October 1924 and published the following year in the Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. In the same year appeared the first of his three studies on the text of the Septuagint, in which, together with those of 1933 and 1937 his ‘transcription theory’ of the Greek Old Testament is developed  and illustrated. [Source: Sidney Jellicoe, The Septuagint and Modern Study, p. 70]

Sidney Jellicoe was Professor and Dean of Divinity at Bishop's University from 1952 until his death in 1973. He was the last of a long line of internationally -known Deans of Divinity at Bishop's, as a leading Septuagint scholar of this generation (the Septuagint (LXX) being the Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures used by Jews dispersed in the ancient world since pre-Christian times ).

  

"His book, The Septuagint and Modern Study, published by Oxford's prestigious Clarendon Press, is now a standard text set beside Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, and Ottley's Handbook to the Septuagint. Its publication in 1968 led to Dean Jellicoe's appointment as Grinfield Lecturer at Oxford for two successive two-year terms. Wherever Septuagint studies continue, his name will be forever remembered. "The Dean" was indeed a Scholar among scholars." (Bishop's University Alumni Magazine, Winter 1974)

 
© 2017 -  Ronnie Bennett-Bray – may be used by others providing that the complete item is used without changes, additions, or comments that change the text in any way.  


Further and better particulars on this subject may be seen at:-

http://en.fairmormon.org/Book_of_Mormon/Anachronisms/Language/Reformed_Egyptian 
  

Page background image is an
AEgyptian  vignette to BD 125, from P. Vindob. Aeg. 65, 2nd century Book of the Dead belongs to one Taruma, priestess of Ptah.

Copyright (C) 2017 - Ronnie Bennett-Bray