A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic, mass hysteria and lynching, but in historical instances also legally sanctioned and involving official witchcraft trials. The classical period of witch hunts in Europe and North America falls into the Early Modern period or about 1480 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 40,000 to 100,000 executions. 
The last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18Th century. In the Kingdom of Great Britain, witchcraft ceased to be an act punishable by law with the Witchcraft Act of 1735. In Germany, sorcery remained punishable by law into the late 18Th century. Contemporary witch-hunts are reported from Sub-Saharan Africa, India and Papua New Guinea. Official legislation against witchcraft is still found in Saudi Arabia and Cameroon.
 The most common estimates are between 40,000 and 60,000 deaths. Brian Levack (The Witch Hunt in Early Modern Europe) multiplied the number of known European witch trials by the average rate of conviction and execution, to arrive at a figure of around 60,000 deaths. Anne Lewellyn Barstow (Witchcraze) adjusted Levack's estimate to account for lost records, estimating 100,000 deaths. Ronald Hutton (Triumph of the Moon) argues that Levack's estimate had already been adjusted for these, and revises the figure to approximately 40,000.
Witch hunting has a new name and is dressed in a new livery: The Counter Cult Movement. Its practitioners are self-called, self-appointed, mostly self-educated, and submit to no authority except that which emanates from their own biased and prejudiced opinions, most of which are factual, but employ rhetorical devices in order to make black appear as white, light as darkness, and truth as falsehood.
It is not overstatement when I say that the most common charges have been robustly and cogently rebuitted, but that does not stop the Cult-Busters in their tracks. It seems that as long as it tremains a highly proficable business, their activity will continue until their gullible supporters come to their sense and recognise the true nature of the parachurches and money spinning organisations - I hesitate to call them ministries - they operate.
The fact that they consider themselves engaged in a Christian activity is as much beyond belief as the activities and motives of the murderous witch finders, and, as sad as it is, they are a pair of brothers. You might not like Mormons, but would it hurt to tell the truth about us without resorting to phantasies? Is that too much to ask?
Further reading from Wikipedia:
“The Christian countercult movement is a collective description for many, mostly unrelated, Christian ministries and individual Christians who actively and vehemently oppose religious groups whose doctrines or practices do not fit within their definition of mainstream Christianity, which they consider to be cults.
Protagonists generally come from an Evangelical or fundamentalist background, although many have Catholic, Eastern Orthodox or Ancient Oriental Orthodox roots.
The countercult movement asserts that non-Christian faiths are spiritually counterfeit and claims the authority to define "true" Christianity, and thus to define "false" Christianity. Christian apologists who write from within this movement argue that a religious body may be defined as a "cult" if its doctrines involve a denial of the teachings which they hold to be essential Christian doctrine (e.g., the doctrine of the Trinity, the person and work of Christ, salvation, etc.).
Some "countercult" groups consider other similar groups to be non-Christian, due to additional disagreements over doctrine or the use of a different translation of the Bible. Many of the Protestant groups consider Catholicism to be a cult, due to beliefs regarding the Pope and Mary among others. Many of the Catholic groups feel the same way about Protestant groups. Countercult ministries also concern themselves with religious groups that regard themselves as Christian, but hold beliefs which are interpreted by the ministries as contradictory to the Bible, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Unification church, Christian Science, and Jehovah's Witnesses, although some also target non-Christian groups, such as Islam, Judaism, Wicca and other Neopagan groups, New Age groups, Buddhism, Hinduism, and other Eastern religions.
Often used by anti-Christians as an extreme example, the Westboro Baptist Church takes issue with nearly all other churches due to a perceived lack of sufficient condemnation of homosexuality. However, the WBC is primarily a protest organization interested in media coverage and does not minister to cult members or produce information on how to get out of any particular cult. Thus the WBC is not considered to be an actual counter cult ministry by evangelicals or those who hold a fundamentalist viewpoint in Christian denominations.
Countercult literature usually expresses doctrinal or theological concerns and a missionary or apologetic purpose. It seeks to identify problems with a given group's teachings or practices and present a rebuttal emphasizing doctrinal positions based upon a normal reading of the Holy Bible (i.e. it means what it says). Christian countercult writers also emphasize the need for the evangelization of followers of "cults", and often present advice and strategies on how Christians may evangelize among targeted groups.
Their activities and orientation vary: some are missionary and apologetically oriented, directed at current members of divergent groups, some are therapeutically oriented, directed mainly at former members of divergent groups, and others educationally oriented, directed at members of their own denomination or at the general public.
The Christian countercult movement, with its emphasis on apologetics and evangelism, does not constitute the totality of concerns which some people have about cult practices. Some Christians share concerns similar to those of the secular anti-cult movement.
Christians have applied theological criteria to assess the teachings of non-orthodox movements throughout church history. The Apostles themselves were involved in challenging the doctrines and claims of various teachers. The Apostle Paul wrote an entire epistle, Galatians, antagonistic to the teachings of a Jewish sect that claimed adherence to the teachings of both Jesus and Moses (cf. Acts 15: & Gal. 1:6-10). The Apostle John devoted his first Epistle to countering early proto-gnostic cults that had arisen in the first century, all claiming to be "Christian" (1 Jn. 2:19).
The early Church in the post-apostolic period was much more involved in "defending its frontiers against alternative soteriologies — either by defining its own position with greater and greater exactness, or by attacking other religions, and particularly the Hellenistic mysteries." In fact, a good deal of the early Christian literature is devoted to the exposure and refutation of unorthodox theology, mystery religions and Gnostic groups. Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Hippolytus were among the greatest early Christian apologists who engaged in critical analyses of unorthodox theology, Greco-Roman pagan religions, and Gnostic groups.
In the Protestant traditions some of the earliest writings opposing unorthodox groups like Swedenborg's teachings, can be traced back to John Wesley, Alexander Campbell and Princeton theologians like Charles Hodge and Benjamin Breckinridge Warfield. The first known usage of the term "cult" by a Protestant apologist to denote a group is heretical or unorthodox is in Anti-Christian Cults by A. H. Barrington, published in 1898.
Quite a few of the pioneering apologists were Baptist pastors, like I. M. Haldeman, or participants in the Plymouth Brethren, like William Irvine and Sydney Watson. Watson wrote a series of didactic novels like Escaped from the Snare: Christian Science, Bewitched by Spiritualism, and The Gilded Lie, as warnings of the dangers posed by cultic groups. Watson's use of fiction to counter the cults has been repeated by later novelists like Frank Peretti.
The early twentieth century apologists generally applied the words "heresy" and "sects" to groups like the Christadelphians, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints [Mormons], Jehovah's Witnesses, Spiritualists, and Theosophers. This was reflected in several chapters contributed to the multi-volume work released in 1915 The Fundamentals, where apologists criticised the teachings of Charles Taze Russell, Mary Baker Eddy (Christian Science), the Latter-day Saints, and Spiritualists.
Since at least the 1940s, the approach of traditional Christians was to apply the meaning of cult such that it included those religious groups who use other scriptures beside the Bible or have teachings and practices deviating from traditional Christian teachings and practices. Some examples of sources (with published dates where known) that documented this approach are:
* The Missionary Faces Isms, by John C. Mattes, pub. 1937 (Board of American Missions of the United Lutheran Church in America).
* Heresies Ancient and Modern, by J.Oswald Sanders, pub.1948 (Marshall Morgan & Scott, London/Zondervan, Grand Rapids). [This work contains manyunforced errors about LDS Doctrines]
* Cults and Isms, by J. Oswald Sanders, pub.1962, 1969, 1980 (Arrowsmith), ISBN 0-551-00458-4. [This work contains many errors about LDS doctrines]
* The Chaos of Cults, by J.K.van Baalen, pub. 1938, 1944, 1960, 1962 (Eerdmans)ISBN 0-8028-3278-4 [This work contains many errors about LDS Doctrines]
* Heresies Exposed, by W.C.Irvine, pub. 1921, 1975 (Loizeaux Brothers). [This work contains many errors about LDS Doctrines]
* Confusion of Tongues, by C.W.Ferguson, pub. 1928 (Doran & Co).
* Isms New and Old, by Julius Bodensieck. [This work contains many errors about LDS Doctrines]
* Some Latter-Day Religions, by G.H.Combs. [This work contains many errors about LDS Doctrines]
One of the first prominent countercult apologists was Jan Karel van Baalen (1890–1968), an ordained minister in the Christian Reformed Church in North America. His book, The Chaos of Cults, which was first published in 1938, became a classic in the field as it was repeatedly revised and updated until 1962. [This work contains many errors about LDS Doctrines]
Historically, one of the most important protagonists of the movement was Walter Martin (1928–89), whose numerous books include the 1955 The Rise of the Cults: An Introductory Guide to the Non-Christian Cults and the 1965 The Kingdom of the Cults: An Analysis of Major Cult Systems in the Present Christian Era, which continues to be influential. He became well known in conservative Christian circles through a radio program, "The Bible Answer Man", currently hosted by Hank Hanegraaff. [See 'Bogus 'Doctor' Walter R Martin]
In The Rise of the Cults Martin gave the following definition of a cult:
By cultism we mean the adherence to doctrines which are pointedly contradictory to orthodox Christianity and which yet claim the distinction of either tracing their origin to orthodox sources or of being in essential harmony with those sources. Cultism, in short, is any major deviation from orthodox Christianity relative to the cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith.
As Martin's definition suggests, the countercult ministries concentrate on non-traditional groups that claim to be Christian, so chief targets have been The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses, Christian Science and the Unification Church, but also smaller groups like the Swedenborgian Church 
Various other conservative Christian leaders—among them John Ankerberg and Norman Geisler—have emphasized themes similar to Martin's [demonstrating a direct literasry dependency on Martin's egregious works]. Perhaps more importantly, numerous other well-known conservative Christian leaders as well as many conservative pastors have accepted Martin's definition of a cult as well as his understanding of the groups to which he gave that label. Dave Breese summed up this kind of definition in these words:
A cult is[said to be] a religious perversion. It is a belief and practice in the world of religion which calls for devotion to a religious view or leader centered in false doctrine. It is an organized heresy. A cult may take many forms but it is basically a religious movement which distorts or warps orthodox faith to the point where truth becomes perverted into a lie. A cult is impossible to define except against the absolute standard of the teaching of Holy Scripture.
Since the 1980s the term "new religions" or "new religious movements" has slowly entered into Evangelical usage, alongside the word "cult". Some book titles use both terms.
The acceptance of these alternatives to the word "cult" in Evangelicalism reflects, in part, the wider usage of such language in the sociology of religion. However, there is no unanimity about whether these terms are synonyms.
The term "countercult apologetics" first appeared in Protestant Evangelical literature as a self-designation in the late 1970s and early 1980s in articles by Ronald Enroth and David Fetcho, and by Walter Martin in Martin Speaks Out on the Cults. A mid-1980s debate about apologetic methodology between Ronald Enroth and J. Gordon Melton, led the latter to place more emphasis in his publications on differentiating the Christian countercult from the secular anti-cult. Eric Pement urged Melton to adopt the label "Christian countercult", and since the early 1990s the terms has entered into popular usage and is recognised by sociologists such as Douglas Cowan.
The only existing umbrella organization within the countercult movement in the USA is the EMNR (Evangelical Ministries to New Religions) founded in 1982 which has the evangelical Lausanne Covenant as governing document and which stresses mission, scholarship, accountability and networking.
While the greatest number of countercult ministries are found in the USA, ministries exist in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, England [and the rest of the United Kingdom], Ethiopia, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Romania, Russia, Sweden, and Ukraine, and many more.
A comparison between the methods employed in the USA and other nations discloses some similarities in emphasis, but also other nuances in emphasis. The similarities are that globally these ministries share a common concern about the evangelization of people in cults and new religions. There is also often a common thread of comparing orthodox doctrines and biblical passages with the teachings of the groups under examination. However, in some of the European and southern hemisphere contexts, confrontational methods of engagement are not always relied on, and dialogical approaches are sometimes advocated.
A group of organizations which originated within the context of established religion is working in more general fields of cult-awareness, especially in Europe. Their leaders are theologians, and they are often social ministries affiliated to big churches.
* Berlin-based Pfarramt für Sekten- und Weltanschauungsfragen ("Pastoral ministry for Sects and World Views.") headed by Thomas Gandow
* Swiss "Evangelische Informationsstelle Kirchen-Sekten-Religionen" (Evangelical information service on Churches, Sects and Religions) headed by Georg Schmid
* Sekten in Sachsen (sects in Saxony)
* Weltanschauungen und religiöse Gruppierungen ("Worldviews and religious groups") of the Austrian diocese of Linz
* GRIS in Italy
* Synodic Committee about Heresies of Greek Orthodox Church
* Center of Ireneus of Lyon in Russia.
Some independents like the international Dialog Center, and Anton Hein's Apologetics Index  in Amsterdam are Evangelical Christians. Hein considers Scientology a hate group because that religious movement has, in his opinion, a long, documented history of hate and harassment activities, which—along with lying and deception—are condoned and encouraged in Scientology's own scriptures. (See, for example, Scientology's Fair Game policy.)
The members of this group are less concerned with doctrine and focus more on practices and methods, mainly targeting groups who, in their view, limit the freedom and self-determinism of their members or exploit them. Special concerns are Scientology, Unification church, Jehovah's Witnesses, VPM, but also some Europe-based NMRs and some fundamentalist charismatic groups.
The phenomena of "cults" has also entered into the discourses of Christian missions and theology of religions. An initial step in this direction occurred in 1980 when the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization convened a mini-consultation in Thailand. From that consultation a position paper was produced. The issue was revisited at the Lausanne Forum in 2004 with another paper. The latter paper adopts a different methodology to that advocated in 1980.
In the 1990s discussions in academic missions and theological journals indicate that another trajectory is emerging which reflects the influence of contextual missions theory. Advocates of this approach maintain that apologetics as a tool needs to be retained, but do not favour a confrontational style of engagement.
Variations and models
Countercult apologetics has several variations and methods employed in analysing and responding to cults. The different nuances in countercult apologetics have been discussed by John A. Saliba and Philip Johnson.
The dominant method is the emphasis on detecting unorthodox or heretical doctrines and contrasting those with orthodox interpretations of the Bible and early creedal documents. Some apologists, such as Francis J. Beckwith, have emphasised a philosophical approach, pointing out logical, epistemological and metaphysical problems within the teachings of a particular group. Another approach involves former members of cultic groups recounting their spiritual autobiographies, which highlight experiences of disenchantment with the group, unanswered questions and doubts about commitment to the group, culminating in the person's conversion to Evangelical Christianity.
Pop apologists like Dave Hunt in Peace, Prosperity and the Coming Holocaust and Hal Lindsey in The Terminal Generation have tended to interpret the phenomena of cults as part of the burgeoning evidence of signs that Christ's Second Advent is close at hand. Both Hunt, and Constance Cumbey, have applied a conspiracy model to interpreting the emergence of New Age spirituality and linking that to speculations about fulfilled prophecies heralding Christ's reappearance.
Other apologists like Bob Larson blend an understanding of cults as heresies with a strongly nuanced emphasis on Satan as the energizing power behind the growth of cults. This theme has been portrayed in the anti-New Age novels by Frank Peretti (This Present Darkness and Piercing the Darkness) where demonic forces empower practitioners of New Age groups while Christians engage in spiritual warfare tactics of prayer and exorcisms to counter the groups.
[Today - written 2011 - there exist many and very diverse countercult ministries and authors, including everything between scholars and soapbox preachers, and there is no overall agreement regarding which groups are part of traditional Christianity. It must be noted that among those properly designated as scholars, there is a marked tendency for them to use the methods of soap box preachers and abandon scientific research altogether in favour of lifting arguments and egregious errors wholesale from the works of other counter-cult movement publications. This is demonstrable and has been raised with several high ranking Evangelical scholars by Ronnie Bray, but to date none has answered the charges This stands accurate as of today's date, 23 June, 2014]
Some Protestants classify Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Seventh-day Adventist or Pentecostal churches as cults, because they allegedly have non-Biblical teachings.
Others speak out mainly against current non-Christian groups or trends in society like the New Age movement, the popularity of Harry Potter books or Halloween.
Some ministries, often led by former members, target single groups like Jehovah's Witnesses or Mormons.
Some of the criticisms of contemporary "cults" (heterodoxy, breaking up families, etc.) were, in its early days, originally directed against Christianity itself.
* Norman Geisler
* Greg Koukl
* Douglas Groothuis
* Anton Hein targets many groups from a 'Christian' point of view.
* J. P. Moreland, Biola University
* Bob and Gretchen Passantino
* Walter Martin, decesaed, former Baptist minister, unfrocked [Martin was NOT an ordained minister in any denomination after his original ordination was rescinded after he remarried after his first divorce]. Non-doctor Martin was the host of the Bible Answer Man radio broadcast and the president of the Christian Research Institute. He often used his show to promote arguments against Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, and other movements. He was shown to be wrong an dinaccurate time and time again but never changed his material to fir the truth. RB
* Answers in Action, Bob and Gretchen Passantino
* Apologia report, maintaining also a professional mailing list for apologetic resources
* Apologetics resource center, by Craig Branch
* Birthpangs.org Banner Ministries Archive Material
* Banner Ministries founded by Tricia Tillin.
* Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry (CARM) founded by Matt Slick
* Christian Research Institute (CRI) founded by Walter Martin
* Cult Awareness and Information Centre founded by the late Jan Groenveld
* Dialog Center founded by Johannes Aagaard
* EMNR Evangelical Ministries to New Religions, an umbrella group for ministries to the cults and new religions
* Institute for Religious Research
* Living Hope Ministries, an organization that produces media materials related to Mormonism and other topics
* Main Street Church of Brigham City, which provides information and resources, including its own media productions, on Mormonism
* Midwest Christian Outreach
* Mormonism Research Ministry (Bill McKeever)
* New England Institute of Religious Research (NEIRR)
* Nauvoo Christian Visitors Center
* Personal Freedom Outreach
* Probe Ministries
* Reach Out Trust [ROT]
* SoundWitness.org Examining the Jehovah's Witnesses
* Spiritual Counterfeits Project, president Tal Brooke
* Stand To Reason, founded by Greg Koukl and Melinda Penner
* Utah Lighthouse Ministry (Jerald & Sandra Tanner)
* Watchman Fellowship, founder David Henke, president James K. Walker
* Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry
* New Religious Movements
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
1. ^ Douglas E Cowan author. Bearing False Witness? Introduction to the Christian Counter Cult. http://www.amazon.com/dp/0275974596
2. ^ Robert M. Bowman, Orthodoxy and Heresy: A Biblical Guide to Doctrinal Discernment, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1992, pp. 10, 106-107, & 123-124. [Unreliable]
3. ^ A survey of Catholic, Eastern orthodox and Protestant Evangelical countercult literature is found in John A. Saliba, Understanding New Religious Movements, 2nd ed, Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press, 2003, pp. 203-239.
4. ^ Walter R. Martin, The Rise of the Cults, rev.ed. Santa Ana: Vision House, 1978, pp. 11-12. [Unreliable]
5. ^ Richard Abanes, Defending the Faith: A Beginner's Guide to Cults and New Religions,Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1997, p. 33. [Unreliable]
6. ^ H. Wayne House & Gordon Carle, Doctrine Twisting: How Core Biblical Truths are Distorted, Downers Grove: IVP, 2003. [Unreliable]
7. ^ Garry W. Trompf,"Missiology, Methodology and the Study of New Religious Movements," Religious Traditions Volume 10, 1987, pp. 95-106. [Unreliable]
8. ^ Walter R. Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, rev.ed. Ravi Zacharias ed. Bloomington: Bethany House, 2003, pp.479-493. [Unreliable]
9. ^ Ronald Enroth ed. Evangelising the Cults, Milton Keynes: Word, 1990. [Unreliable]
10. ^ Norman L Geisler & Ron Rhodes, When Cultists Ask: A Popular Handbook on Cultic Misinterpretations, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1997.
11. ^ Paul R. Martin, Cult Proofing Your Kids, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1993. [Unreliable]
12. ^ Joel A. MacCollam, Carnival of Souls: Religious Cults and Young People, New York: Seabury Press, 1979.
13. ^ Saliba, Understanding New Religious Movements, pp.45-74.
14. ^ Harold O. J. Brown, Heresies: The Image of Christ in the Mirror of Heresy and Orthodoxy from the Apostles to the Present, Garden City: Doubleday, 1984. [Unreliable]
15. ^ J.W.C.Wand, The Four Great Heresies:Nestorian, Eutychian, Apollinarian, Arian, London: A.R.Mowbray, 1955.
16. ^ Eric J. Sharpe, Comparative Religion: A History, London: Duckworth, 1975, p. 9 [Unreliable]
17. ^ Brown, Heresies, pp.38-69. [Unreliable]
18. ^ Ronald H. Nash, Christianity and the Hellenistic World, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1984, pp.213-224.
19. ^ Avery Dulles, A History of Apologetics, Eugene: Wipf & Stock, 1999, pp. 22-58.
20. ^ J.K.S.Reid, Christian Apologetics, Grand Rapids: William Eerdmans, 1970, pp. 36-53.
21. ^ Bengt Hagglund, History of Theology, trans. Gene J. Lund, St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968, pp.31-105.
22. ^ Richard G. Kyle, The Religious Fringe: A History of Alternative Religions in America, Downers Grove: IVP, 1993. [Unreliable]
23. ^ Philip Jenkins, Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. [Unreliable]
24. ^ A.H.Barrington, Anti-Christian Cults, Milwaukee:Young Churchman/London:Sampson Low, Marston, 1898.
25. ^ J. Gordon Melton,"The counter-cult monitoring movement in historical perspective," in Challenging Religion: Essays in Honour of Eileen Barker, edited by James A. Beckford & James T. Richardson, Routledge, London, 2003, pp. 102–113.
26. ^ Sydney Watson, Escaped from the Snare: Christian Science, London:William Nichoson & Sons, no date. [Unreliable]
27. ^ Sydney Watson, The Lure of a Soul: Bewitched by Spiritualism, London: W. Nicholson & Sons, no date.
28. ^ Frank E. Peretti, This Present Darkness, Westchester: Crossway,1986. [Unreliable]
29. ^ James R. Lewis, "Works of Darkness: Occult Fascination in the Novels of Frank Peretti" in Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft, James R. Lewis ed. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1996, pp.339-350.
30. ^ William G. Moorehead, ‘Millennial Dawn A Counterfeit of Christianity’, in The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, Volume 7. Chicago: Testimony Publishing. [Unreliable]
31. ^ Maurice E. Wilson, ‘Eddyism, Commonly Called “Christian Science”, in The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, Volume 9. Chicago: Testimony Publishing.
32. ^ R. G. McNiece, ‘Mormonism: Its Origin, Characteristics, and Doctrines’, in The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, Volume 8. Chicago: Testimony Publishing. [Unreliable]
33. ^ Algernon J. Pollock, ‘Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested By Scripture’, in The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, Volume 10. Chicago: Testimony Publishing.
34. ^ J.K.van Baalen, The Chaos of Cults, 4Th rev.ed.Grand Rapids: William Eerdmans Publishing, 1962. [Unreliable]
35. ^ Walter R. Martin, The Rise of the Cults, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1955, pp. 11-12. [Unreliable]
36. ^ Each of these movements are treated in separate chapters in Walter R. Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults, rev. ed. Ravi Zacharias ed. Bloomington: Bethany House, 2003. [Unreliable]
37. ^ John Ankerberg & John Weldon, Cult Watch,Eugene: Harvest House, 1991, pp. i-x. [Unreliable]
38. ^ Geisler & Rhodes, When Cultists Ask, pp. 10-11. [Unreliable]
39. ^ Dave Breese, Know the Marks of Cults, Wheaton: Victor, 1975, 14. [Unreliable]
40. ^ Compare this definition with heresy.
41. ^ Richard Abanes, Cults, New Religious Movements, and Your Family, Wheaton: Crossway, 1998. [Unreliable]
42. ^ Ronald Enroth ed. A Guide to New Religious Movements, Downers Grove: IVP, 2005. [Unreliable]
43. ^ Ron Rhodes, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2001. [Unreliable]
44. ^ On sociological understandings see for example Eileen Barker, New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction, London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1989. George D. Chryssides, Exploring New Religions, London & New York: Cassell, 1999.Jacob Needleman & George Baker ed. Understanding the New Religions, New York: Seabury Press, 1981. Mikael Rothstein & Reender Kranenborg ed. New Religions in a Postmodern World, Aarhus, Denmark: Aargus University Press, 2003.
45. ^ Ronald M. Enroth, "Cult/Counter-cult", Eternity, November 1977, pp.18-22 & 32-35. David Fetcho, "Disclosing the Unknown God: Evangelism to the New Religions", Update: A Quarterly Journal on New Religious Movements Volume 6, number 4 December 1982 p.8. Walter R. Martin, Martin Speaks Out On The Cults, rev. ed. Ventura: Vision House, 1983,pp.124-125. [Unreliable]
46. ^ Ronald M. Enroth and J. Gordon Melton, Why Cults Succeed Where The Church Fails, Elgin: Brethren, 1985, pp. 25-30. [Unreliable]
47. ^ Eric Pement, ‘Comments on the Directory’ in Keith Edward Tolbert and Eric Pement, The 1993 Directory of Cult Research Organizations,Trenton: American Religions Center, 1993, p. x.
48. ^ Douglas E. Cowan, Bearing False Witness? An Introduction ot the Christian Countercult, Westport: Praeger, 2003.
49. ^ Pfarramt für Sekten- und Weltanschauungsfragen - Index
50. ^ Pfarramt für Sekten- und Weltanschauungsfragen - Pfarrer Gandow
51. ^ Relinfo
52. ^ Sekten in Sachsen
53. ^ Sekten & Gruppierunge
54. ^ www.gris.org
56. ^ Apologetics Index : Apologetics and Cult Information [Unreliable]
57. ^ Hate Groups : Church of Scientology - Examining the cult's hate and harassment practices
58. ^ Scientology's ''Fair Game'' Policy - religious cults, sects and movements
59. ^ The Thailand Report on New Religious Movements
60. ^ Religious and Non-Religious Spirituality in the Western World
61. ^ Irving Hexham, Stephen Rost & John W. Morehead ed. Encountering New Religious Movements: A Holistic Evangelical Approach, Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2004.Gordon R. Lewis, "Our Mission Responsibility to New Religious Movements" International Journal of Frontier Missions Volume 15, number 3 July–September 1998,p. 116.
62. ^ Saliba, Understanding New Religious Movements, pp.212-223. Philip Johnson, "Apologetics, Mission and New Religious Movements: A Holistic Approach," Sacred Tribes Journal, Volume 1, number 1 Fall 2002 5-220.
63. ^ Francis J. Beckwith & Stephen E. Parrish, See the gods fall, Joplin: College Press, 1997. Francis J. Beckwith, Carl Mosser & Paul Owen ed. The New Mormon Challenge, Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002.
64. ^ James R. Adair & Ted Miller ed. Escape from Darkness, Wheaton: Victor, 1982.Chris Elkins, Heavenly Deception, Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1980. Joe Hewitt, I Was Raised a Jehovah's Witness, Denver: Accent Books, 1979. Latayne C. Scott, Ex-Mormons: Why We Left, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990.
65. ^ Dave Hunt, Peace, Prosperity and the Coming Holocaust: The New Age Movement in Prophecy, Eugene: Harvest House, 1983. Hal Lindsey, The Terminal Generation, Old Tappan: Fleming H. Revell, 1976.
66. ^ Constance E. Cumbey, The Hidden Dangers of the Rainbow, Shreveport: Huntington House, 1983. Evaluated in Elliot Miller, A Crash Course on the New Age Movement, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1989, pp. 193-206. John A. Saliba, Christian Responses to the New Age Movement: A Critical Assessment, London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1999, pp.58-63.
67. ^ Bob Larson, Larson’s Book of Cults, Wheaton: Tyndale House, 1982. [Unreliable]
68. ^ Apologetics Index : Apologetics and Cult Information [Unreliable]
69. ^ Answers In Action - Truth Brings Ligh
70. ^ Apologia
71. ^ Apologetics Resource Center (ARC) - Birmingham, AL [Unreliable]
72. ^ CROSS+WORD Christian Research
73. ^ Cult Help and Information - Home
74. ^ Welcome to EMNR On-Line
75. ^ Institute for Religious Research: Resources for investigating today's competing religious claims, including Mormonism, Jehovah's Witnesses and the Church Universal and Triumph... [Unreliable]
76. ^ Living Hope Ministries [Unreliable]
77. ^ Main Street Church of Brigham City [Unreliable]
78. ^ NEIRR: Resources for those in cults and high control groups [Unreliable]
79. ^ Probe Ministries [Unreliable]
* Abanes, Richard, Cults, New Religious Movements, and Your Family, Crossway Books, Wheaton, 1998. [Unreliable]
* Ankerberg, John and John Weldon, Encyclopedia of Cults and New Religions, Harvest House, Eugene, 1999. [Unreliable]
* Enroth, Ronald (ed)., A Guide to New Religious Movements, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, 2005. [Unreliable]
* Geisler, Norman L. and Ron Rhodes, When Cultists Ask, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1997 [Unreliable]
* House, H.Wayne, Charts of Cults, Sects and Religious Movements, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 2000. [Unreliable]
* LeBar, James J. Cults, Sects, and the New Age, Our Sunday Visitor, Huntington, 1989. [Unreliable]
* Martin, Walter R. The Kingdom of the Cults, edited by Ravi Zacharias, Bethany, Bloomington, 2003 [Unreliable]
* McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart, Handbook of Today's Religions, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, 1992 [Unreliable]
* Rhodes, Ron, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 2001 [Unreliable]
* Sire, James W. Scripture Twisting: Twenty Ways the Cults Misread the Bible, InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, 1980. [Unreliable]
* Sire, James W. The Universe Next Door 4Th ed., InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove, 2004. [Unreliable]
* Tucker, Ruth A. Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions and the New Age Movement, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, 2004. [Unreliable]
* Vatican Report on Sects, Cults and New Religious Movements, St. Paul Publications, Sydney, 1988. [Unreliable]
History and critical assessments
* Cowan, Douglas E. Bearing False Witness? An Introduction to the Christian Countercult (Praeger Publishers, Westport, Connecticut & London, 2003).
* Enroth, Ronald M. and J. Gordon Melton, Why Cults Succeed Where The Church Fails (Brethren Press, Elgin, 1985). [Unreliable]
* Jenkins, Philip, Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History (Oxford University Press, New York, 2000). [Unreliable]
* Johnson, Philip, "Apologetics, Mission, and New Religious Movements: A Holistic Approach," Sacred Tribes: Journal of Christian Missions to New Religious Movements
, 1 (1) (2002)
* Melton, J. Gordon., "The counter-cult monitoring movement in historical perspective," in Challenging Religion: Essays in Honour of Eileen Barker, edited by James A. Beckford & James T. Richardson, (Routledge, London, 2003), pp. 102–113.
* Saliba, John A., Understanding New Religious Movements, 2nd edition (Alta Mira Press, Walnut Creek, Lanham, New York & Oxford, 2003).
* Apologetics Index; The counter-cult movement
* Douglas E. Cowan: Christian Countercult Website Profiles
* CESNUR: Overview of Christian Countercult movement by Douglas E. Cowan
* Counter Cult Movement at Religious Tolerance
* Jeff Lindsay's discussion of cults from an LDS perspective
* Article: Anti-"Minority Religion" Groups with "Big Religion" Ties
Centre contre les manipulations mentales · CESNUR ·[Unreliable]
Christian Apologetics and Research Ministry ·[Unreliable]
Council on Mind Abuse · [Unreliable]
Cult Awareness and Information Centre · [Unreliable]
Cult Awareness Network · [Unreliable]
Cult Information Centre ·[Unreliable]
FECRIS · [Unreliable]
Fight Against Coercive Tactics Network · [Unreliable]
FREECOG · [Unreliable]
INFORM (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements) · [Unreliable]
International Cultic Studies Association · [Unreliable]
MIVILUDES · [Unreliable]
New England Institute of Religious Research · [Unreliable]
Reach Out Trust [ROT] [Unreliable]·
The Family Survival Trust ·[Unreliable]
Union nationale des associations de défense des familles et de l'individu · [Unreliable]
Wellspring Retreat and Resource Center [Unreliable]